Molecular clock analysis on five Bactrocera species flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on combination of COI and NADH sequences

Salmah Yaakop, N. J. Ibrahim, S. Shariff, Badrul Munir Md. Zain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper marks the first attempt at using the molecular clock analysis on five Malaysian Bactrocera species based on combined data of COI and ND1 to test the divergence times of species that infested 11 varieties of fruits and vegetables. A divergence tree was constructed to estimate the cryptic species among the five closely related Bactrocera species viz. B. (Bactrocera) and B. (Zeugodacus). Both subgenera evolved and diverged approximately 21.5933 million years ago (MYA). The particularly complex taxonomical status of the sister-species B. papayae and B. carambolae has been resolved using the divergence tree; the two separated from the others approximately 2.743 MYA, while B. papayae and B. carambolae distinctly diverged between 1.9619 and 2.2884 MYA. Additionally, Bactrocera dorsalis showed divergence at 4.1596 MYA and was distinctly separate from the B. papayae. Interestingly, the molecular clock results are congruent with the phylogenetic tree that was analysed using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference. Further, the taxonomical status and host utilisation of the five Bactrocera species were also briefly discussed, which indicated that B. cucurbitae (subgenus Zeugodacus) was infesting Cucurbitaceae and B. latifrons was infesting Solanaceaea, while B. dorsalis, B. carambolae and B. papaya were infesting a wide range of fruit species. Key message Divergence time of five Malaysian Bactroceran species is reported for the first time and found congruent with the results of phylogeny based on combined data of COI and ND1 markers using MP and Bayesian analyses. This finding could prove very crucial for resolving the most crucial taxonomic conflicts in Bactrocera classification, which is highly important initially in species identification for integrated pest management (IPM) programme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-164
Number of pages15
JournalOriental Insects
Volume49
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2015

Fingerprint

Bactrocera
Tephritidae
Bactrocera dorsalis
Bactrocera papayae
Bactrocera latifrons
Bactrocera cucurbitae
fruits
phylogeny
Cucurbitaceae
papayas
integrated pest management
vegetables
taxonomy
testing

Keywords

  • Bactrocera
  • COI
  • infested crop
  • ND1
  • phylogeny
  • time divergence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

Cite this

Molecular clock analysis on five Bactrocera species flies (Diptera : Tephritidae) based on combination of COI and NADH sequences. / Yaakop, Salmah; Ibrahim, N. J.; Shariff, S.; Md. Zain, Badrul Munir.

In: Oriental Insects, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, 02.01.2015, p. 150-164.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "This paper marks the first attempt at using the molecular clock analysis on five Malaysian Bactrocera species based on combined data of COI and ND1 to test the divergence times of species that infested 11 varieties of fruits and vegetables. A divergence tree was constructed to estimate the cryptic species among the five closely related Bactrocera species viz. B. (Bactrocera) and B. (Zeugodacus). Both subgenera evolved and diverged approximately 21.5933 million years ago (MYA). The particularly complex taxonomical status of the sister-species B. papayae and B. carambolae has been resolved using the divergence tree; the two separated from the others approximately 2.743 MYA, while B. papayae and B. carambolae distinctly diverged between 1.9619 and 2.2884 MYA. Additionally, Bactrocera dorsalis showed divergence at 4.1596 MYA and was distinctly separate from the B. papayae. Interestingly, the molecular clock results are congruent with the phylogenetic tree that was analysed using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference. Further, the taxonomical status and host utilisation of the five Bactrocera species were also briefly discussed, which indicated that B. cucurbitae (subgenus Zeugodacus) was infesting Cucurbitaceae and B. latifrons was infesting Solanaceaea, while B. dorsalis, B. carambolae and B. papaya were infesting a wide range of fruit species. Key message Divergence time of five Malaysian Bactroceran species is reported for the first time and found congruent with the results of phylogeny based on combined data of COI and ND1 markers using MP and Bayesian analyses. This finding could prove very crucial for resolving the most crucial taxonomic conflicts in Bactrocera classification, which is highly important initially in species identification for integrated pest management (IPM) programme.",
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