Modeling the fate and transport of non-volatile organic chemicals in the agro-ecosystem: A case study of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

M. A. Batiha, Abdul Amir H. Kadhum, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Mohd Sobri Takriff, Z. Fisal, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, M. M. Batiha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many pesticides used in agricultural activities are considered environmentally non-volatile. The main purpose of this paper is to develop multimedia model to be used as a tool to predict the overall fate and transport of non-volatile organic chemicals (NVOCs) dynamic in the agro-ecosystem. The model was developed based on the EQuilibrium Criterion (EQC) model for type 2 chemicals introduced by Mackay and colleagues in 1996. Mackay's model only considered four environmental compartments, which are air, water, soil and sediment. The present model adds the vegetation compartment, in addition to previous compartments that shape the agro-ecosystem. The vegetation compartment is described by two sub-compartments consisting of the above ground plant (AGP) and roots. The model was parameterized for the Cameron Highlands region, Malaysia, and runs with an illustrative emission rate of 1 kg h-1 into the air for three selected pesticides, namely, mancozeb, spinosad and chlorosulfuron. The simulation results with and without vegetation compartment were compared. The estimated results indicating that the AGP captures 99.9% of introduced NVOCs (i.e., of 100% or 1 kg h-1) and transfers them to the ground below due to the slight degradation losses of 10-4% and the non-volatility property of the evaluated chemicals. Root uptake of chlorosulfuron accounted the highest removal process from soil while degradation of spinosad in the soil is the major loss mechanism. Leaching to groundwater loss for mancozeb is about 2-fold greater than that of degradation, which together accounted the major removal process from soil. Based on the estimated results of mass distribution on the overall system, vegetation compartment accumulates 0.04%, 0.5% and 2.02% of the mancozeb, spinosad and chlorosulfuron, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-134
Number of pages14
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
Volume87
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009

Fingerprint

Organic Chemicals
Organic chemicals
Ecosystems
spinosad
ecosystem
modeling
Soils
vegetation
Pesticides
Degradation
pesticide
upland region
degradation
soil degradation
multimedia
air
Air
Leaching
chemical
Groundwater

Keywords

  • Agricultural pollution
  • Mass balance model
  • NVOCs
  • Pesticide
  • Vegetation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Modeling the fate and transport of non-volatile organic chemicals in the agro-ecosystem : A case study of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. / Batiha, M. A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri; Fisal, Z.; Wan Daud, Wan Ramli; Batiha, M. M.

In: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 87, No. 2, 03.2009, p. 121-134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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