Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination

Nabihah Haron, Rosnah Binti Zain, Wan Maria Nabillah, Amyza Saleh, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Anand Ramanathan, Suraya Hani Mohd. Sinon, Ishak Abdul Razak, Sok Ching Cheong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice. Results: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-199
Number of pages8
JournalTelemedicine and e-Health
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Oral Medicine
Oral Diagnosis
Cell Phones
Mouth Neoplasms
Dentists
Early Detection of Cancer
Mouth
Referral and Consultation
Mouth Mucosa
Primary Health Care
Decision Making
Communication
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • early detection & prevention
  • oral cancer
  • oral cancer awareness
  • teledentistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management

Cite this

Haron, N., Zain, R. B., Nabillah, W. M., Saleh, A., Kallarakkal, T. G., Ramanathan, A., ... Cheong, S. C. (2017). Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination. Telemedicine and e-Health, 23(3), 192-199. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2016.0128

Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination. / Haron, Nabihah; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Nabillah, Wan Maria; Saleh, Amyza; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Ramanathan, Anand; Mohd. Sinon, Suraya Hani; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Cheong, Sok Ching.

In: Telemedicine and e-Health, Vol. 23, No. 3, 01.03.2017, p. 192-199.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Haron, N, Zain, RB, Nabillah, WM, Saleh, A, Kallarakkal, TG, Ramanathan, A, Mohd. Sinon, SH, Razak, IA & Cheong, SC 2017, 'Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination', Telemedicine and e-Health, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 192-199. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2016.0128
Haron, Nabihah ; Zain, Rosnah Binti ; Nabillah, Wan Maria ; Saleh, Amyza ; Kallarakkal, Thomas George ; Ramanathan, Anand ; Mohd. Sinon, Suraya Hani ; Razak, Ishak Abdul ; Cheong, Sok Ching. / Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination. In: Telemedicine and e-Health. 2017 ; Vol. 23, No. 3. pp. 192-199.
@article{4287d0fc7d604ad884948af36b5c726e,
title = "Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination",
abstract = "Introduction: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice. Results: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70{\%} and specificity was 100{\%}. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.",
keywords = "early detection & prevention, oral cancer, oral cancer awareness, teledentistry",
author = "Nabihah Haron and Zain, {Rosnah Binti} and Nabillah, {Wan Maria} and Amyza Saleh and Kallarakkal, {Thomas George} and Anand Ramanathan and {Mohd. Sinon}, {Suraya Hani} and Razak, {Ishak Abdul} and Cheong, {Sok Ching}",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/tmj.2016.0128",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "192--199",
journal = "Telemedicine Journal and e-Health",
issn = "1530-5627",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination

AU - Haron, Nabihah

AU - Zain, Rosnah Binti

AU - Nabillah, Wan Maria

AU - Saleh, Amyza

AU - Kallarakkal, Thomas George

AU - Ramanathan, Anand

AU - Mohd. Sinon, Suraya Hani

AU - Razak, Ishak Abdul

AU - Cheong, Sok Ching

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Introduction: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice. Results: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

AB - Introduction: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice. Results: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

KW - early detection & prevention

KW - oral cancer

KW - oral cancer awareness

KW - teledentistry

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85015269852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85015269852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/tmj.2016.0128

DO - 10.1089/tmj.2016.0128

M3 - Review article

C2 - 27541205

AN - SCOPUS:85015269852

VL - 23

SP - 192

EP - 199

JO - Telemedicine Journal and e-Health

JF - Telemedicine Journal and e-Health

SN - 1530-5627

IS - 3

ER -