Microhabitat Factors Influenced the Prevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Small Mammal Host

Muhammad Afif Yusof, Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib, Siti Nabilah Ishak, Shukor Md. Nor, Shahrul Anuar Md-Sah, Nor Zalipah Mohamed, Nurul Natasya Azhari, Vasanthakumari Neela, Zamberi Sekawi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Leptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is a public health problem, especially in major urban centres, and is mainly reported to be associated with rats. In Malaysia, focus has been primarily given to the Leptospira prevalence in rodents per se, but there is lack of information on the microhabitat structure of the outbreak areas. We aimed to determine the diversity of small mammal species, microhabitat types, and their prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the outbreak areas, which were categorized as urban, semi-urban, and recreational forests. Sampling involved deploying 100 to 300 live traps at each study site. Kidney samples were extracted from selected individuals, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp. by PCR. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. From 389 individuals screened, 58 were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4% (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6% (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8% (n = 133). Seven rodent species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira from all areas. R. norvegicus was found to harbour the highest prevalence (66.7%) in urban, R. rattus (53.8%) in semi-urban, whereby M. whiteheadi (44.4%) in recreational forest sites. Microhabitat analysis revealed that rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of Leptospira. This study contributes to understanding of the host and microhabitat preferences of Leptospira, which is important in controlling the spread of this disease in human’s landscapes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEcoHealth
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Leptospira
small mammal
microhabitat
Mammals
rodent
urban site
refuse
Disease Outbreaks
Rodentia
public health
harbor
Leptospirosis
Malaysia
Zoonoses
sampling
Public Health
Kidney
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Forests

Keywords

  • Leptospirosis
  • Microhabitat
  • Prevalence
  • Recreational forest
  • Rodents
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Microhabitat Factors Influenced the Prevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Small Mammal Host. / Yusof, Muhammad Afif; Mohd Taib, Farah Shafawati; Ishak, Siti Nabilah; Md. Nor, Shukor; Md-Sah, Shahrul Anuar; Mohamed, Nor Zalipah; Azhari, Nurul Natasya; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Sekawi, Zamberi.

In: EcoHealth, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yusof, Muhammad Afif ; Mohd Taib, Farah Shafawati ; Ishak, Siti Nabilah ; Md. Nor, Shukor ; Md-Sah, Shahrul Anuar ; Mohamed, Nor Zalipah ; Azhari, Nurul Natasya ; Neela, Vasanthakumari ; Sekawi, Zamberi. / Microhabitat Factors Influenced the Prevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Small Mammal Host. In: EcoHealth. 2019.
@article{54071c9f926c449daf518ffca2be5c58,
title = "Microhabitat Factors Influenced the Prevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Small Mammal Host",
abstract = "Leptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is a public health problem, especially in major urban centres, and is mainly reported to be associated with rats. In Malaysia, focus has been primarily given to the Leptospira prevalence in rodents per se, but there is lack of information on the microhabitat structure of the outbreak areas. We aimed to determine the diversity of small mammal species, microhabitat types, and their prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the outbreak areas, which were categorized as urban, semi-urban, and recreational forests. Sampling involved deploying 100 to 300 live traps at each study site. Kidney samples were extracted from selected individuals, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp. by PCR. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. From 389 individuals screened, 58 were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4{\%} (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6{\%} (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8{\%} (n = 133). Seven rodent species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira from all areas. R. norvegicus was found to harbour the highest prevalence (66.7{\%}) in urban, R. rattus (53.8{\%}) in semi-urban, whereby M. whiteheadi (44.4{\%}) in recreational forest sites. Microhabitat analysis revealed that rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of Leptospira. This study contributes to understanding of the host and microhabitat preferences of Leptospira, which is important in controlling the spread of this disease in human’s landscapes.",
keywords = "Leptospirosis, Microhabitat, Prevalence, Recreational forest, Rodents, Urban",
author = "Yusof, {Muhammad Afif} and {Mohd Taib}, {Farah Shafawati} and Ishak, {Siti Nabilah} and {Md. Nor}, Shukor and Md-Sah, {Shahrul Anuar} and Mohamed, {Nor Zalipah} and Azhari, {Nurul Natasya} and Vasanthakumari Neela and Zamberi Sekawi",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s10393-019-01419-1",
language = "English",
journal = "EcoHealth",
issn = "1612-9202",
publisher = "Springer New York",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microhabitat Factors Influenced the Prevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Small Mammal Host

AU - Yusof, Muhammad Afif

AU - Mohd Taib, Farah Shafawati

AU - Ishak, Siti Nabilah

AU - Md. Nor, Shukor

AU - Md-Sah, Shahrul Anuar

AU - Mohamed, Nor Zalipah

AU - Azhari, Nurul Natasya

AU - Neela, Vasanthakumari

AU - Sekawi, Zamberi

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Leptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is a public health problem, especially in major urban centres, and is mainly reported to be associated with rats. In Malaysia, focus has been primarily given to the Leptospira prevalence in rodents per se, but there is lack of information on the microhabitat structure of the outbreak areas. We aimed to determine the diversity of small mammal species, microhabitat types, and their prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the outbreak areas, which were categorized as urban, semi-urban, and recreational forests. Sampling involved deploying 100 to 300 live traps at each study site. Kidney samples were extracted from selected individuals, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp. by PCR. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. From 389 individuals screened, 58 were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4% (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6% (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8% (n = 133). Seven rodent species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira from all areas. R. norvegicus was found to harbour the highest prevalence (66.7%) in urban, R. rattus (53.8%) in semi-urban, whereby M. whiteheadi (44.4%) in recreational forest sites. Microhabitat analysis revealed that rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of Leptospira. This study contributes to understanding of the host and microhabitat preferences of Leptospira, which is important in controlling the spread of this disease in human’s landscapes.

AB - Leptospirosis, a widespread zoonotic disease, is a public health problem, especially in major urban centres, and is mainly reported to be associated with rats. In Malaysia, focus has been primarily given to the Leptospira prevalence in rodents per se, but there is lack of information on the microhabitat structure of the outbreak areas. We aimed to determine the diversity of small mammal species, microhabitat types, and their prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the outbreak areas, which were categorized as urban, semi-urban, and recreational forests. Sampling involved deploying 100 to 300 live traps at each study site. Kidney samples were extracted from selected individuals, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp. by PCR. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. From 389 individuals screened, 58 were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4% (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6% (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8% (n = 133). Seven rodent species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira from all areas. R. norvegicus was found to harbour the highest prevalence (66.7%) in urban, R. rattus (53.8%) in semi-urban, whereby M. whiteheadi (44.4%) in recreational forest sites. Microhabitat analysis revealed that rubbish quantity contributed especially strongly to a high prevalence of Leptospira. This study contributes to understanding of the host and microhabitat preferences of Leptospira, which is important in controlling the spread of this disease in human’s landscapes.

KW - Leptospirosis

KW - Microhabitat

KW - Prevalence

KW - Recreational forest

KW - Rodents

KW - Urban

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066860266&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85066860266&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10393-019-01419-1

DO - 10.1007/s10393-019-01419-1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85066860266

JO - EcoHealth

JF - EcoHealth

SN - 1612-9202

ER -