Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite

Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength

K. W. Neoh, K. Y. Tshai, P. S. Khiew, Chin Hua Chia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Extensive environmental concern associated with the disposal of solid plastic wastes has stirred tremendous interest in the production and use of sustainable biodegradable polymers. Among the vast variety of available materials, Polylactic Acid (PLA) standout as the most commercially viable mass produced resin to date. However, its low thermal and mechanical stability, excessive brittleness, and relatively higher cost have led to numerous research efforts in producing biodegradable polymer composite filled with natural organic fibers. This paper describes the preparation and the mechanical characteristics of a compression molded biodegradable composite made entirely of renewable raw materials. The composites were reinforced with pulverized palm, kenaf and alkali (1M NaOH:fiber in ratio 2:1) treated kenaf fibers, at a fiber mass proportion of 20 to 60% blended PLA and processed in a custom-built compression mold. SEM microscan revealed that the kenaf fiber has a mean diameter of 40 μm, length 1236.6 μm, and aspect ratio of 31 while the measured values for palm fiber was 58.7 μm, 1041.2 μm, and 17.7, respectively. All resulting composites showed significant enhancement in tensile strength. At 20, 40 and 60% fiber loading, the palm/PLA composite recorded tensile strength increment of 46.9, 47.8 and 36.6%, respectively. For the kenaf/PLA composite, greatest improvement was achieved at 40% fiber loading with alkali treated kenaf, with approximately 54% higher than the neat PLA while only 12.6% was recorded for the non-treated kenaf/PLA composite, signifying that the surface modification greatly improved fiber-matrix adhesion. SEM observations on the fracture surface showed similar findings. Compared to commercially available palm/Polypropylene (palm/PP) composite at 50% fiber loading, our measured tensile strength for the PLA composite loaded with 40% alkali treated kenaf fiber was still about 20% lower. Further enhancement in the mechanical characteristic of the kenaf/PLA composite is required to push for its wider utilization in the polymer industry.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationApplied Mechanics and Materials
Pages1-5
Number of pages5
Volume145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Event1st International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation, ICETI 2011 - Kenting, Pingtung
Duration: 11 Nov 201115 Nov 2011

Publication series

NameApplied Mechanics and Materials
Volume145
ISSN (Print)16609336
ISSN (Electronic)16627482

Other

Other1st International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation, ICETI 2011
CityKenting, Pingtung
Period11/11/1115/11/11

Fingerprint

Kenaf fibers
Volume fraction
Tensile strength
Acids
Composite materials
Fibers
Biodegradable polymers
Scanning electron microscopy
Mechanical stability
Brittleness
Waste disposal
Surface treatment
Aspect ratio
Polypropylenes
Raw materials
Compaction
Thermodynamic stability
Adhesion
Resins

Keywords

  • Composite
  • Fiber
  • Kenaf
  • Palm
  • PLA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Neoh, K. W., Tshai, K. Y., Khiew, P. S., & Chia, C. H. (2012). Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite: Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 145, pp. 1-5). (Applied Mechanics and Materials; Vol. 145). https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.145.1

Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite : Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength. / Neoh, K. W.; Tshai, K. Y.; Khiew, P. S.; Chia, Chin Hua.

Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol. 145 2012. p. 1-5 (Applied Mechanics and Materials; Vol. 145).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Neoh, KW, Tshai, KY, Khiew, PS & Chia, CH 2012, Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite: Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength. in Applied Mechanics and Materials. vol. 145, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 145, pp. 1-5, 1st International Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation, ICETI 2011, Kenting, Pingtung, 11/11/11. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.145.1
Neoh KW, Tshai KY, Khiew PS, Chia CH. Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite: Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength. In Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol. 145. 2012. p. 1-5. (Applied Mechanics and Materials). https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.145.1
Neoh, K. W. ; Tshai, K. Y. ; Khiew, P. S. ; Chia, Chin Hua. / Micro Palm and Kenaf fibers reinforced PLA composite : Effect of volume fraction on tensile strength. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol. 145 2012. pp. 1-5 (Applied Mechanics and Materials).
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abstract = "Extensive environmental concern associated with the disposal of solid plastic wastes has stirred tremendous interest in the production and use of sustainable biodegradable polymers. Among the vast variety of available materials, Polylactic Acid (PLA) standout as the most commercially viable mass produced resin to date. However, its low thermal and mechanical stability, excessive brittleness, and relatively higher cost have led to numerous research efforts in producing biodegradable polymer composite filled with natural organic fibers. This paper describes the preparation and the mechanical characteristics of a compression molded biodegradable composite made entirely of renewable raw materials. The composites were reinforced with pulverized palm, kenaf and alkali (1M NaOH:fiber in ratio 2:1) treated kenaf fibers, at a fiber mass proportion of 20 to 60{\%} blended PLA and processed in a custom-built compression mold. SEM microscan revealed that the kenaf fiber has a mean diameter of 40 μm, length 1236.6 μm, and aspect ratio of 31 while the measured values for palm fiber was 58.7 μm, 1041.2 μm, and 17.7, respectively. All resulting composites showed significant enhancement in tensile strength. At 20, 40 and 60{\%} fiber loading, the palm/PLA composite recorded tensile strength increment of 46.9, 47.8 and 36.6{\%}, respectively. For the kenaf/PLA composite, greatest improvement was achieved at 40{\%} fiber loading with alkali treated kenaf, with approximately 54{\%} higher than the neat PLA while only 12.6{\%} was recorded for the non-treated kenaf/PLA composite, signifying that the surface modification greatly improved fiber-matrix adhesion. SEM observations on the fracture surface showed similar findings. Compared to commercially available palm/Polypropylene (palm/PP) composite at 50{\%} fiber loading, our measured tensile strength for the PLA composite loaded with 40{\%} alkali treated kenaf fiber was still about 20{\%} lower. Further enhancement in the mechanical characteristic of the kenaf/PLA composite is required to push for its wider utilization in the polymer industry.",
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