Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia

Mas Ayu Said, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Mohd Hussain Habil, Srijit Das, Abdul Kadir Abu Bakar, Rosliwati Md Yusoff, Tsui Huei Loo, Shamshunnisah Abu Bakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Introduction This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. Method s This cross-sectional study, conducted at multiple centres, involved 270 patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, were on antipsychotic medications for at least one year, and were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilisers were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria modified for Asian waist circumference. Risk for cardiovascular disease was assessed by using Framingham function (all ten-year CHD events). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46.7% (126/270). Among all the antipsychotics used, atypical antipsychotics (monotherapy) were most commonly used in both the metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome groups (50.8% vs. 58.3%). The ten-year risk for CHD was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. The proportion of patients with high/very high risk for CHD (Framingham ≥ 10%) was greater in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those with non-metabolic syndrome (31.5% vs. 11.0%, odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001). The mean body mass index was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m<sup>2</sup> vs. 25.0 ± 5.6 kg/m<sup>2</sup>; p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia have a very high incidence of metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Urgent interventions are needed to combat these problems in patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)801-807
Number of pages7
JournalSingapore Medical Journal
Volume53
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

Fingerprint

Metabolic Syndrome X
Malaysia
Antipsychotic Agents
Schizophrenia
Coronary Disease
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Waist Circumference
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cross-Sectional Studies
Adenosine Triphosphate
Odds Ratio
Cholesterol
Confidence Intervals
Education

Keywords

  • Body mass index
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Prevalence
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Said, M. A., Sulaiman, A. H., Habil, M. H., Das, S., Bakar, A. K. A., Yusoff, R. M., ... Bakar, S. A. (2012). Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. Singapore Medical Journal, 53(12), 801-807.

Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. / Said, Mas Ayu; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Habil, Mohd Hussain; Das, Srijit; Bakar, Abdul Kadir Abu; Yusoff, Rosliwati Md; Loo, Tsui Huei; Bakar, Shamshunnisah Abu.

In: Singapore Medical Journal, Vol. 53, No. 12, 12.2012, p. 801-807.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Said, MA, Sulaiman, AH, Habil, MH, Das, S, Bakar, AKA, Yusoff, RM, Loo, TH & Bakar, SA 2012, 'Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia', Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 801-807.
Said, Mas Ayu ; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim ; Habil, Mohd Hussain ; Das, Srijit ; Bakar, Abdul Kadir Abu ; Yusoff, Rosliwati Md ; Loo, Tsui Huei ; Bakar, Shamshunnisah Abu. / Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk among patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. In: Singapore Medical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 53, No. 12. pp. 801-807.
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abstract = "Introduction This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. Method s This cross-sectional study, conducted at multiple centres, involved 270 patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, were on antipsychotic medications for at least one year, and were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilisers were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria modified for Asian waist circumference. Risk for cardiovascular disease was assessed by using Framingham function (all ten-year CHD events). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46.7{\%} (126/270). Among all the antipsychotics used, atypical antipsychotics (monotherapy) were most commonly used in both the metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome groups (50.8{\%} vs. 58.3{\%}). The ten-year risk for CHD was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. The proportion of patients with high/very high risk for CHD (Framingham ≥ 10{\%}) was greater in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those with non-metabolic syndrome (31.5{\%} vs. 11.0{\%}, odds ratio 3.9, 95{\%} confidence interval 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001). The mean body mass index was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 ± 5.6 kg/m2; p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia have a very high incidence of metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Urgent interventions are needed to combat these problems in patients.",
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AU - Said, Mas Ayu

AU - Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim

AU - Habil, Mohd Hussain

AU - Das, Srijit

AU - Bakar, Abdul Kadir Abu

AU - Yusoff, Rosliwati Md

AU - Loo, Tsui Huei

AU - Bakar, Shamshunnisah Abu

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N2 - Introduction This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. Method s This cross-sectional study, conducted at multiple centres, involved 270 patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, were on antipsychotic medications for at least one year, and were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilisers were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria modified for Asian waist circumference. Risk for cardiovascular disease was assessed by using Framingham function (all ten-year CHD events). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46.7% (126/270). Among all the antipsychotics used, atypical antipsychotics (monotherapy) were most commonly used in both the metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome groups (50.8% vs. 58.3%). The ten-year risk for CHD was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. The proportion of patients with high/very high risk for CHD (Framingham ≥ 10%) was greater in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those with non-metabolic syndrome (31.5% vs. 11.0%, odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001). The mean body mass index was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 ± 5.6 kg/m2; p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia have a very high incidence of metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Urgent interventions are needed to combat these problems in patients.

AB - Introduction This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia. Method s This cross-sectional study, conducted at multiple centres, involved 270 patients who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, were on antipsychotic medications for at least one year, and were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving mood stabilisers were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria modified for Asian waist circumference. Risk for cardiovascular disease was assessed by using Framingham function (all ten-year CHD events). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46.7% (126/270). Among all the antipsychotics used, atypical antipsychotics (monotherapy) were most commonly used in both the metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome groups (50.8% vs. 58.3%). The ten-year risk for CHD was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. The proportion of patients with high/very high risk for CHD (Framingham ≥ 10%) was greater in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those with non-metabolic syndrome (31.5% vs. 11.0%, odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001). The mean body mass index was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (29.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 vs. 25.0 ± 5.6 kg/m2; p < 0.001). Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics in Malaysia have a very high incidence of metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risk. Urgent interventions are needed to combat these problems in patients.

KW - Body mass index

KW - Cardiovascular risk

KW - Metabolic syndrome

KW - Prevalence

KW - Schizophrenia

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