Melanau language ancient consonant phoneme

Norfazila Ab Hamid, Rahim Aman, Shahidi A. Hamid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

This article discusses on the effort to reconstruct the ancient consonant phoneme form of a language assumed to exist in Sarawak which is called the Ancient Melanau Language (BMLP). BMLP reconstruction was conducted using the qualitative comparative method. This qualitative comparative method begins with the determination of cognate words, the construction of correspondence paradigm, searching for phonemic recurrence, and ends with the determination of the ancient phonemes of the language. When the ancient phonemes in each correspondence paradigm are obtained, then all at once the ancient morphemes for the correspondence paradigm are also obtained. Thirteen Melanau variants (VM) in Sarawak were used as the basis of this comparison, namely, Bintulu (BT), Balingian (BLGN), Mukah (MKH), Oya (OA), Igan (IGN), Dalat (DLT), Matu (MT), Daro (DO), Medong (MDG), UD River (UD River), Rajang (RJG), Kanowit (KNWT) and Tanjong (TJG). The study result proved that the reconstructed BMLP has 18 ancient phonemes namely, four voiceless plosive consonants of *p, *t, *k and *, three voiced plosive consonants of *b, *d and *g, a voiced affricate consonant *d, two voiceless fricative consonants *s and *h, four nasal consonants *m, *n, * and ŋ, a trill voiced consonant *r, a lateral voiced consonant *l and two semi-vowel consonants *w and *j. This low-level reconstruction study has directly pioneered the effort to reconstruct the BMLP on a higher level that is, comparing the BMLP with the Ancient Polynesian Malay language (PMP).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-42
Number of pages22
JournalDialectologia
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

paradigm
language
reconstruction
river
Ancient Languages
Phoneme
Consonant
Language
Paradigm
Comparative Method
Sarawak
Plosives

Keywords

  • Comparative method
  • Consonant
  • Melanau variants
  • Phoneme
  • Reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

Cite this

Melanau language ancient consonant phoneme. / Hamid, Norfazila Ab; Aman, Rahim; A. Hamid, Shahidi.

In: Dialectologia, No. 20, 01.12.2018, p. 21-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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N2 - This article discusses on the effort to reconstruct the ancient consonant phoneme form of a language assumed to exist in Sarawak which is called the Ancient Melanau Language (BMLP). BMLP reconstruction was conducted using the qualitative comparative method. This qualitative comparative method begins with the determination of cognate words, the construction of correspondence paradigm, searching for phonemic recurrence, and ends with the determination of the ancient phonemes of the language. When the ancient phonemes in each correspondence paradigm are obtained, then all at once the ancient morphemes for the correspondence paradigm are also obtained. Thirteen Melanau variants (VM) in Sarawak were used as the basis of this comparison, namely, Bintulu (BT), Balingian (BLGN), Mukah (MKH), Oya (OA), Igan (IGN), Dalat (DLT), Matu (MT), Daro (DO), Medong (MDG), UD River (UD River), Rajang (RJG), Kanowit (KNWT) and Tanjong (TJG). The study result proved that the reconstructed BMLP has 18 ancient phonemes namely, four voiceless plosive consonants of *p, *t, *k and *, three voiced plosive consonants of *b, *d and *g, a voiced affricate consonant *d, two voiceless fricative consonants *s and *h, four nasal consonants *m, *n, * and ŋ, a trill voiced consonant *r, a lateral voiced consonant *l and two semi-vowel consonants *w and *j. This low-level reconstruction study has directly pioneered the effort to reconstruct the BMLP on a higher level that is, comparing the BMLP with the Ancient Polynesian Malay language (PMP).

AB - This article discusses on the effort to reconstruct the ancient consonant phoneme form of a language assumed to exist in Sarawak which is called the Ancient Melanau Language (BMLP). BMLP reconstruction was conducted using the qualitative comparative method. This qualitative comparative method begins with the determination of cognate words, the construction of correspondence paradigm, searching for phonemic recurrence, and ends with the determination of the ancient phonemes of the language. When the ancient phonemes in each correspondence paradigm are obtained, then all at once the ancient morphemes for the correspondence paradigm are also obtained. Thirteen Melanau variants (VM) in Sarawak were used as the basis of this comparison, namely, Bintulu (BT), Balingian (BLGN), Mukah (MKH), Oya (OA), Igan (IGN), Dalat (DLT), Matu (MT), Daro (DO), Medong (MDG), UD River (UD River), Rajang (RJG), Kanowit (KNWT) and Tanjong (TJG). The study result proved that the reconstructed BMLP has 18 ancient phonemes namely, four voiceless plosive consonants of *p, *t, *k and *, three voiced plosive consonants of *b, *d and *g, a voiced affricate consonant *d, two voiceless fricative consonants *s and *h, four nasal consonants *m, *n, * and ŋ, a trill voiced consonant *r, a lateral voiced consonant *l and two semi-vowel consonants *w and *j. This low-level reconstruction study has directly pioneered the effort to reconstruct the BMLP on a higher level that is, comparing the BMLP with the Ancient Polynesian Malay language (PMP).

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