Lowering dietary glycaemic index through nutrition education among Malaysian women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

Sangeetha Shyam, A. Fatimah, A. G. Rohana, Norasyikin A. Wahab @ A. Rahman, C. Karuthan, Nik Shanita Safii, B. N. Mohd Yusof, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low glycaemic index (GI) diets improve cardio-metabolic outcomes in insulin-resistant individuals. We examined the feasibility of lowering GI through GI-based-education among Asian post-GDM women. Methods: A 3-month investigation was carried out on 60 Malaysian women with a mean age of 31.0±4.5 years and a history of GDM. Subjects were randomised into two groups: LGIE and CHDR. The CHDR group received conventional healthy dietary recommendations only. The LGIE group received GI based-education in addition to conventional healthy dietary recommendations. At baseline and after 3-months, dietary intake of energy and macronutrient intakes including GI diet and glycaemic load was assessed using 3-day food records. Diabetes-Diet and GI-concept scores and physical activity levels were assessed using a questionnaire. Adherence to dietary instructions was measured at the end of 3 months. Results: At the end of 3 months, the LGIE group had significant reductions in energy intake (241.7±522.4Kcal, P=0.037, ES=0.463), total carbohydrate (48.7±83.5g, P=0.010, ES=0.583), GI (3.9±7.1, P=0.017, ES=0.549) and GL (39.0±55.3, P=0.003, ES=0.705) and significant increases in protein (3.7±5.4g, 0.003, ES=0.685) and diet fibre (4.6±7.3g, P=0.06). The CHDR group had a significant reduction in fat only (5.7±9.4g, P=0.006, ES=0.606). There was a 30% increase in GI-concept scores in the LGIE group (p< 0.001). Changes in GI-concept scores correlated significantly to the reduction in dietary GI (r = -0.642, P=0.045). Dietary adherence was comparable in both groups. Conclusion: GI-education improves GI-concept knowledge and helps lower dietary glycaemic index among women with a history of GDM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-24
Number of pages16
JournalMalaysian Journal of Nutrition
Volume19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

gestational diabetes
Glycemic Index
glycemic index
Gestational Diabetes
nutrition education
Education
Diet
education
dietary recommendations
Energy Intake
diet
food records
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
insulin resistance
physical activity
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
cardiovascular diseases

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus
  • Glycaemic index
  • Glycaemic load
  • Prevention
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Food Science

Cite this

Lowering dietary glycaemic index through nutrition education among Malaysian women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. / Shyam, Sangeetha; Fatimah, A.; Rohana, A. G.; A. Wahab @ A. Rahman, Norasyikin; Karuthan, C.; Safii, Nik Shanita; Mohd Yusof, B. N.; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi.

In: Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2013, p. 9-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low glycaemic index (GI) diets improve cardio-metabolic outcomes in insulin-resistant individuals. We examined the feasibility of lowering GI through GI-based-education among Asian post-GDM women. Methods: A 3-month investigation was carried out on 60 Malaysian women with a mean age of 31.0±4.5 years and a history of GDM. Subjects were randomised into two groups: LGIE and CHDR. The CHDR group received conventional healthy dietary recommendations only. The LGIE group received GI based-education in addition to conventional healthy dietary recommendations. At baseline and after 3-months, dietary intake of energy and macronutrient intakes including GI diet and glycaemic load was assessed using 3-day food records. Diabetes-Diet and GI-concept scores and physical activity levels were assessed using a questionnaire. Adherence to dietary instructions was measured at the end of 3 months. Results: At the end of 3 months, the LGIE group had significant reductions in energy intake (241.7±522.4Kcal, P=0.037, ES=0.463), total carbohydrate (48.7±83.5g, P=0.010, ES=0.583), GI (3.9±7.1, P=0.017, ES=0.549) and GL (39.0±55.3, P=0.003, ES=0.705) and significant increases in protein (3.7±5.4g, 0.003, ES=0.685) and diet fibre (4.6±7.3g, P=0.06). The CHDR group had a significant reduction in fat only (5.7±9.4g, P=0.006, ES=0.606). There was a 30{\%} increase in GI-concept scores in the LGIE group (p< 0.001). Changes in GI-concept scores correlated significantly to the reduction in dietary GI (r = -0.642, P=0.045). Dietary adherence was comparable in both groups. Conclusion: GI-education improves GI-concept knowledge and helps lower dietary glycaemic index among women with a history of GDM.",
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author = "Sangeetha Shyam and A. Fatimah and Rohana, {A. G.} and {A. Wahab @ A. Rahman}, Norasyikin and C. Karuthan and Safii, {Nik Shanita} and {Mohd Yusof}, {B. N.} and Kamaruddin, {Nor Azmi}",
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AU - Fatimah, A.

AU - Rohana, A. G.

AU - A. Wahab @ A. Rahman, Norasyikin

AU - Karuthan, C.

AU - Safii, Nik Shanita

AU - Mohd Yusof, B. N.

AU - Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

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N2 - Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low glycaemic index (GI) diets improve cardio-metabolic outcomes in insulin-resistant individuals. We examined the feasibility of lowering GI through GI-based-education among Asian post-GDM women. Methods: A 3-month investigation was carried out on 60 Malaysian women with a mean age of 31.0±4.5 years and a history of GDM. Subjects were randomised into two groups: LGIE and CHDR. The CHDR group received conventional healthy dietary recommendations only. The LGIE group received GI based-education in addition to conventional healthy dietary recommendations. At baseline and after 3-months, dietary intake of energy and macronutrient intakes including GI diet and glycaemic load was assessed using 3-day food records. Diabetes-Diet and GI-concept scores and physical activity levels were assessed using a questionnaire. Adherence to dietary instructions was measured at the end of 3 months. Results: At the end of 3 months, the LGIE group had significant reductions in energy intake (241.7±522.4Kcal, P=0.037, ES=0.463), total carbohydrate (48.7±83.5g, P=0.010, ES=0.583), GI (3.9±7.1, P=0.017, ES=0.549) and GL (39.0±55.3, P=0.003, ES=0.705) and significant increases in protein (3.7±5.4g, 0.003, ES=0.685) and diet fibre (4.6±7.3g, P=0.06). The CHDR group had a significant reduction in fat only (5.7±9.4g, P=0.006, ES=0.606). There was a 30% increase in GI-concept scores in the LGIE group (p< 0.001). Changes in GI-concept scores correlated significantly to the reduction in dietary GI (r = -0.642, P=0.045). Dietary adherence was comparable in both groups. Conclusion: GI-education improves GI-concept knowledge and helps lower dietary glycaemic index among women with a history of GDM.

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KW - Diet

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KW - Glycaemic index

KW - Glycaemic load

KW - Prevention

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