Liquefied residue of kenaf core wood produced at different phenol-kenaf ratio

Saiful Bahari Bakarudin, Sarani Zakaria, Chin Hua Chia, S. Mohd Jani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Liquefactions of kenaf core wood were carried out at different phenol-kenaf (P/k) ratios. Characterizations of kenaf core wood liquefied residue were carried out to measure the degree of liquefaction. This provides a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Functional groups on the raw kenaf core wood and liquefied residue were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The crystallinity index of the kenaf wood liquefied residue, which represents crystallinity changes of the cellulose component after the liquefaction process, was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of the wood residue was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behavior of the residues was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Abroad peak around 3450-3400 cm-1 representing OH stretching in lignin start to disappear as P/K ratio increases. The results showed that the higher the P/K ratio the greater the liquefaction of the lignin component in the kenaf core wood. The crystallinity index (CrI) on the kenaf liquefied residues increased with the increase in P/K ratio. SEM images showed that the small fragments attached on the liquefied kenaf residue surface were gradually removed as the P/K ratio was increased from 1.5/1.0 to 2.5/1.0, which is mainly attributed to the greater chemical penetration toward reactive site of the kenaf fibres. Residue content decreased as the P/K ratio increased from 1.5/1.0 to 2.5/1.0. TGA results showed the increase of heat resistance in the residue as the P/K ratio was increased.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-231
Number of pages7
JournalSains Malaysiana
Volume41
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012

Fingerprint

Phenols
Liquefaction
Wood
Lignin
Thermogravimetric analysis
Kenaf fibers
Scanning electron microscopy
Heat resistance
Functional groups
Stretching
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Surface morphology
Cellulose
X ray diffraction

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Kenaf residue
  • Liquefaction
  • Phenol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Liquefied residue of kenaf core wood produced at different phenol-kenaf ratio. / Bakarudin, Saiful Bahari; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jani, S. Mohd.

In: Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 41, No. 2, 02.2012, p. 225-231.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bakarudin, Saiful Bahari ; Zakaria, Sarani ; Chia, Chin Hua ; Jani, S. Mohd. / Liquefied residue of kenaf core wood produced at different phenol-kenaf ratio. In: Sains Malaysiana. 2012 ; Vol. 41, No. 2. pp. 225-231.
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