Levels of metallic elements and their potential relationships to cognitive function among elderly from federal land development authority (FELDA) settlement in Selangor Malaysia

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Abstract

Exposure to toxic metals and excessive amount of trace elements is a risk factor of cognitive decline. Continuous monitoring of these elements by the use of metabolically inactive tissues such as fingernails may help in taking preventive measures to delay the cognitive decline process. In this study, the cognitive function of 54 elderlies (60-72 years old) from FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, was evaluated using the Malay version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in fingernail were detected using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that (92.6 %) our population was cognitively impaired based on the MoCA with mean score of 18.07 ± 5.11. The mean level of elements in fingernails for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 16.68 ± 3.52, 4.26 ± 0.91, 4.81 ± 1.16, 1.00 ± 0.23, 1.83 ± 0.47, and 40.86 ± 10.81 μg/g, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between MoCA with age (r = -0.543, p < 0.01), Cu level (r = -0.330, p < 0.05), and Mn level (r = -0.496, p < 0.01). MMSE was correlated to age (r = -0.346, p < 0.05) only. In conclusion, besides aging, the progression of cognitive decline among the elderly FELDA population was associated with increased levels of copper and manganese.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-21
Number of pages6
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Volume153
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Manganese
Cognition
Nails
Arsenic
Cadmium
Zinc
Copper
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Poisons
Trace Elements
Population
Mass Spectrometry
Aging of materials
Metals
Tissue
Monitoring
Cognitive Dysfunction

Keywords

  • Cognitive function
  • Elderly
  • FELDA
  • Fingernail
  • Heavy metals
  • Trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{481e939dfb384945aedf9e8ee9d00ddf,
title = "Levels of metallic elements and their potential relationships to cognitive function among elderly from federal land development authority (FELDA) settlement in Selangor Malaysia",
abstract = "Exposure to toxic metals and excessive amount of trace elements is a risk factor of cognitive decline. Continuous monitoring of these elements by the use of metabolically inactive tissues such as fingernails may help in taking preventive measures to delay the cognitive decline process. In this study, the cognitive function of 54 elderlies (60-72 years old) from FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, was evaluated using the Malay version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in fingernail were detected using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that (92.6 {\%}) our population was cognitively impaired based on the MoCA with mean score of 18.07 ± 5.11. The mean level of elements in fingernails for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 16.68 ± 3.52, 4.26 ± 0.91, 4.81 ± 1.16, 1.00 ± 0.23, 1.83 ± 0.47, and 40.86 ± 10.81 μg/g, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between MoCA with age (r = -0.543, p < 0.01), Cu level (r = -0.330, p < 0.05), and Mn level (r = -0.496, p < 0.01). MMSE was correlated to age (r = -0.346, p < 0.05) only. In conclusion, besides aging, the progression of cognitive decline among the elderly FELDA population was associated with increased levels of copper and manganese.",
keywords = "Cognitive function, Elderly, FELDA, Fingernail, Heavy metals, Trace elements",
author = "Ghazali, {Ahmad Rohi} and Firdaus Kamarulzaman and {Che Din}, Normah and Mahadir Ahmad and Ghazali, {Shazli Ezzat} and Norhayati Ibrahim and Zaini Said and Suzana Shahar and Norhana Angkat and Rosdinom Razali",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1007/s12011-013-9642-7",
language = "English",
volume = "153",
pages = "16--21",
journal = "Biological Trace Element Research",
issn = "0163-4984",
publisher = "Humana Press",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Levels of metallic elements and their potential relationships to cognitive function among elderly from federal land development authority (FELDA) settlement in Selangor Malaysia

AU - Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

AU - Kamarulzaman, Firdaus

AU - Che Din, Normah

AU - Ahmad, Mahadir

AU - Ghazali, Shazli Ezzat

AU - Ibrahim, Norhayati

AU - Said, Zaini

AU - Shahar, Suzana

AU - Angkat, Norhana

AU - Razali, Rosdinom

PY - 2013/6

Y1 - 2013/6

N2 - Exposure to toxic metals and excessive amount of trace elements is a risk factor of cognitive decline. Continuous monitoring of these elements by the use of metabolically inactive tissues such as fingernails may help in taking preventive measures to delay the cognitive decline process. In this study, the cognitive function of 54 elderlies (60-72 years old) from FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, was evaluated using the Malay version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in fingernail were detected using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that (92.6 %) our population was cognitively impaired based on the MoCA with mean score of 18.07 ± 5.11. The mean level of elements in fingernails for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 16.68 ± 3.52, 4.26 ± 0.91, 4.81 ± 1.16, 1.00 ± 0.23, 1.83 ± 0.47, and 40.86 ± 10.81 μg/g, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between MoCA with age (r = -0.543, p < 0.01), Cu level (r = -0.330, p < 0.05), and Mn level (r = -0.496, p < 0.01). MMSE was correlated to age (r = -0.346, p < 0.05) only. In conclusion, besides aging, the progression of cognitive decline among the elderly FELDA population was associated with increased levels of copper and manganese.

AB - Exposure to toxic metals and excessive amount of trace elements is a risk factor of cognitive decline. Continuous monitoring of these elements by the use of metabolically inactive tissues such as fingernails may help in taking preventive measures to delay the cognitive decline process. In this study, the cognitive function of 54 elderlies (60-72 years old) from FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, was evaluated using the Malay version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in fingernail were detected using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that (92.6 %) our population was cognitively impaired based on the MoCA with mean score of 18.07 ± 5.11. The mean level of elements in fingernails for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 16.68 ± 3.52, 4.26 ± 0.91, 4.81 ± 1.16, 1.00 ± 0.23, 1.83 ± 0.47, and 40.86 ± 10.81 μg/g, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between MoCA with age (r = -0.543, p < 0.01), Cu level (r = -0.330, p < 0.05), and Mn level (r = -0.496, p < 0.01). MMSE was correlated to age (r = -0.346, p < 0.05) only. In conclusion, besides aging, the progression of cognitive decline among the elderly FELDA population was associated with increased levels of copper and manganese.

KW - Cognitive function

KW - Elderly

KW - FELDA

KW - Fingernail

KW - Heavy metals

KW - Trace elements

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