Lead exposure among Malaysian school children using δ-aminolevulinic acid as an indicator

Lai Oi Ming, Salmijah Surif, Aminah Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A study on lead exposure among school children aged between 7 and 12 years from Kajang and Sepang in the state of Selangor, Malaysia was carried out using delta-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA) levels in the urine as an index. The δ-ALA levels in urine were linked to variables which could contribute to lead exposure. Out of 1628 school children studied [Kajang (43.5%) and Sepang (56.5%)], only 194 subjects (16 and 8.8% from Kajang and Sepang, respectively) had urinary δ-ALA levels between 0.6 and 2.0 mg/100 ml. However, χ2 analysis demonstrated significant association between δ-ALA of this group to some of the variables. The strongest association was found in the habit of biting fingernails (P < 0.025). Other statistically significant correlations were found between δ-ALA and father's occupation (P < 0.05) and the amount of time spent playing in the field (P < 0.01). Generally, this study indicates that school children in Kajang and Sepang are still relatively safe from excessively high lead exposure. However, a more sensitive indicator, which is based on a lower tolerable lead limits, such as lead in blood, are necessary to affirm this finding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-213
Number of pages7
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume193
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 1997

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Aminolevulinic Acid
Lead
urine
Acids
acid
occupation
Blood
blood
indicator
exposure
school

Keywords

  • delta-aminolevulinic acid
  • indicators
  • lead

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Lead exposure among Malaysian school children using δ-aminolevulinic acid as an indicator. / Ming, Lai Oi; Surif, Salmijah; Abdullah, Aminah.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 193, No. 3, 30.01.1997, p. 207-213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ming, Lai Oi ; Surif, Salmijah ; Abdullah, Aminah. / Lead exposure among Malaysian school children using δ-aminolevulinic acid as an indicator. In: Science of the Total Environment. 1997 ; Vol. 193, No. 3. pp. 207-213.
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