Khat chewing and health related quality of life

Cross-sectional study in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Kamaludin A. Sheikh, Maged El-setouhy, Umar Yagoub, Rashad Alsanosy, Zafar Ahmed

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    18 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: The chewing of Khat leaves, a natural psychoactive substance is widely chewed in countries of East Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and is reported to be associated with a range of unfavorable health outcomes including khat dependence. The impact of Khat chewing on Health Related Quality of Life is yet to be explored. Aims: to measure and compare the quality of life of the khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a short form health survey (SF36), and to assess factors associated with Khat chewing using SF36 in a sample of adult population in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A total of 630 participants from two independent male populations of khat chewers and non-khat chewers were recruited into a cross-sectional survey study. A self administrative survey based on the SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socioeconomic data of the respondents were also collected for detailed analysis. Data analysis include: descriptive statistics, reliability tests (Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient), and bivariate analysis (Chi square and Mann-Whitney U-test) to compare HRQoL of Khat chewers and non-Khat chewers.Results: The odds of being a khat chewer were higher in respondents with a lower socioeconomic status. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for respondents with khat chewing, indicating that non-khat chewers had higher health perceptions compared with those chewing khat. The overall mean score of HRQoL for non-khat chewers was 92.7% (SD 5.53) compared with 63.5% (SD 21.73) for the khat chewing group. The study had shown good internal consistency and reproducibility across the eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire (α 0.74-0.95). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between khat chewers and non-khat chewers (P < 0.001).Conclusions: This study measured and compared the quality of life of khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a generic health survey (SF36). The study had shown that khat chewing is associated with lower quality of life (HRQoL) and lower socioeconomic status. However in future a more refined SF36 developed especially for Khat chewers can provide more useful information.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number44
    JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
    Volume12
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 4 Apr 2014

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    Catha
    Saudi Arabia
    Mastication
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Quality of Life
    Nonparametric Statistics
    Health Surveys
    Social Class
    Eastern Africa

    Keywords

    • FS-36 questionnaire
    • Health related quality of life
    • Khat chewing

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

    Cite this

    Khat chewing and health related quality of life : Cross-sectional study in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. / Sheikh, Kamaludin A.; El-setouhy, Maged; Yagoub, Umar; Alsanosy, Rashad; Ahmed, Zafar.

    In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 12, No. 1, 44, 04.04.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Sheikh, Kamaludin A. ; El-setouhy, Maged ; Yagoub, Umar ; Alsanosy, Rashad ; Ahmed, Zafar. / Khat chewing and health related quality of life : Cross-sectional study in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2014 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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    abstract = "Background: The chewing of Khat leaves, a natural psychoactive substance is widely chewed in countries of East Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and is reported to be associated with a range of unfavorable health outcomes including khat dependence. The impact of Khat chewing on Health Related Quality of Life is yet to be explored. Aims: to measure and compare the quality of life of the khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a short form health survey (SF36), and to assess factors associated with Khat chewing using SF36 in a sample of adult population in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A total of 630 participants from two independent male populations of khat chewers and non-khat chewers were recruited into a cross-sectional survey study. A self administrative survey based on the SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socioeconomic data of the respondents were also collected for detailed analysis. Data analysis include: descriptive statistics, reliability tests (Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient), and bivariate analysis (Chi square and Mann-Whitney U-test) to compare HRQoL of Khat chewers and non-Khat chewers.Results: The odds of being a khat chewer were higher in respondents with a lower socioeconomic status. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for respondents with khat chewing, indicating that non-khat chewers had higher health perceptions compared with those chewing khat. The overall mean score of HRQoL for non-khat chewers was 92.7{\%} (SD 5.53) compared with 63.5{\%} (SD 21.73) for the khat chewing group. The study had shown good internal consistency and reproducibility across the eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire (α 0.74-0.95). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between khat chewers and non-khat chewers (P < 0.001).Conclusions: This study measured and compared the quality of life of khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a generic health survey (SF36). The study had shown that khat chewing is associated with lower quality of life (HRQoL) and lower socioeconomic status. However in future a more refined SF36 developed especially for Khat chewers can provide more useful information.",
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    AU - Sheikh, Kamaludin A.

    AU - El-setouhy, Maged

    AU - Yagoub, Umar

    AU - Alsanosy, Rashad

    AU - Ahmed, Zafar

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    N2 - Background: The chewing of Khat leaves, a natural psychoactive substance is widely chewed in countries of East Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and is reported to be associated with a range of unfavorable health outcomes including khat dependence. The impact of Khat chewing on Health Related Quality of Life is yet to be explored. Aims: to measure and compare the quality of life of the khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a short form health survey (SF36), and to assess factors associated with Khat chewing using SF36 in a sample of adult population in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A total of 630 participants from two independent male populations of khat chewers and non-khat chewers were recruited into a cross-sectional survey study. A self administrative survey based on the SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socioeconomic data of the respondents were also collected for detailed analysis. Data analysis include: descriptive statistics, reliability tests (Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient), and bivariate analysis (Chi square and Mann-Whitney U-test) to compare HRQoL of Khat chewers and non-Khat chewers.Results: The odds of being a khat chewer were higher in respondents with a lower socioeconomic status. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for respondents with khat chewing, indicating that non-khat chewers had higher health perceptions compared with those chewing khat. The overall mean score of HRQoL for non-khat chewers was 92.7% (SD 5.53) compared with 63.5% (SD 21.73) for the khat chewing group. The study had shown good internal consistency and reproducibility across the eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire (α 0.74-0.95). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between khat chewers and non-khat chewers (P < 0.001).Conclusions: This study measured and compared the quality of life of khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a generic health survey (SF36). The study had shown that khat chewing is associated with lower quality of life (HRQoL) and lower socioeconomic status. However in future a more refined SF36 developed especially for Khat chewers can provide more useful information.

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