Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites

Sahrim Ahmad, H. Anuar, R. Rased, Sarani Zakaria, J. K. Sameni, M. N. Mohd Amin, O. Omar, K. Hassan, Z. Al-Asraf

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

New kenaf fiber (KF) based thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) composite with polypropylene (PP) were compounded by melt blending method. Kenaf fiber and TPNR were mixed at various fiber fraction (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 v f %) using internal mixer, Thermo Haake 600p. The effects of mixing parameters were investigated for KF-TPNR composites at various mixing conditions (mixing temperature, rate of rotation and mixing time). Mechanical properties were evaluated for their tensile strength (σ max), Young's modulus (E) and maximum strain. The study was found that the optimum processing parameters obtained at mixing speed of 11rpm, temperature of 180°C and processing time of 12minutes. The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using tensile, impact, and flexural test. The incorporation of the fiber into TPNR matrix has resulted in the improvement of the tensile strength, impact strength, Young's modulus and flexural modulus. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was employed to improve the interfacial adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR matrix. Better performance has been attributed with the addition of compatibilizer due to improvements of the wetting of the fiber surface. The present of MAPP had improved tensile strength, Young's modulus and flexural stiffness. Scanning electron microscope was also employed to examine the fiber surface, fiber pull-out, and fiber-matrix interaction. SEM micrographs have shown that good adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR was achieved when the compatibilizer was applied. Thermal properties of composites were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). TGA measurements have revealed that the present of compatibilizer had improved the degradation temperature of the composites. DMA difractogram showed that the KF-TPNR composites with higher fiber loading demonstrated higher storage modulus (E') and loss modulus (E''). An addition of compatibilizer enhanced the tan δ values indicating the improvement in the interphase.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAppita Annual Conference
Pages21-26
Number of pages6
Volume3
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Event59th Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition, incorporating the 13th ISWFPC: International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry - Auckland, New Zealand
Duration: 16 May 200519 May 2005

Other

Other59th Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition, incorporating the 13th ISWFPC: International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry
CountryNew Zealand
CityAuckland
Period16/5/0519/5/05

Fingerprint

Kenaf fibers
Thermoplastics
Rubber
Compatibilizers
Fibers
Composite materials
Elastic moduli
Polypropylenes
Tensile strength
Maleic anhydride
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Thermogravimetric analysis
Adhesion
Mechanical properties
Impact strength
Processing
Temperature
Wetting
Electron microscopes
Thermodynamic properties

Keywords

  • Kenaf fiber
  • MAPP
  • Mechanical properties
  • Thermal properties
  • TPNR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Ahmad, S., Anuar, H., Rased, R., Zakaria, S., Sameni, J. K., Mohd Amin, M. N., ... Al-Asraf, Z. (2005). Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites. In Appita Annual Conference (Vol. 3, pp. 21-26)

Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites. / Ahmad, Sahrim; Anuar, H.; Rased, R.; Zakaria, Sarani; Sameni, J. K.; Mohd Amin, M. N.; Omar, O.; Hassan, K.; Al-Asraf, Z.

Appita Annual Conference. Vol. 3 2005. p. 21-26.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ahmad, S, Anuar, H, Rased, R, Zakaria, S, Sameni, JK, Mohd Amin, MN, Omar, O, Hassan, K & Al-Asraf, Z 2005, Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites. in Appita Annual Conference. vol. 3, pp. 21-26, 59th Appita Annual Conference and Exhibition, incorporating the 13th ISWFPC: International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, Auckland, New Zealand, 16/5/05.
Ahmad S, Anuar H, Rased R, Zakaria S, Sameni JK, Mohd Amin MN et al. Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites. In Appita Annual Conference. Vol. 3. 2005. p. 21-26
Ahmad, Sahrim ; Anuar, H. ; Rased, R. ; Zakaria, Sarani ; Sameni, J. K. ; Mohd Amin, M. N. ; Omar, O. ; Hassan, K. ; Al-Asraf, Z. / Kenaf fibers reinforced thermoplastics natural rubber composites. Appita Annual Conference. Vol. 3 2005. pp. 21-26
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AU - Zakaria, Sarani

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AU - Mohd Amin, M. N.

AU - Omar, O.

AU - Hassan, K.

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N2 - New kenaf fiber (KF) based thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) composite with polypropylene (PP) were compounded by melt blending method. Kenaf fiber and TPNR were mixed at various fiber fraction (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 v f %) using internal mixer, Thermo Haake 600p. The effects of mixing parameters were investigated for KF-TPNR composites at various mixing conditions (mixing temperature, rate of rotation and mixing time). Mechanical properties were evaluated for their tensile strength (σ max), Young's modulus (E) and maximum strain. The study was found that the optimum processing parameters obtained at mixing speed of 11rpm, temperature of 180°C and processing time of 12minutes. The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using tensile, impact, and flexural test. The incorporation of the fiber into TPNR matrix has resulted in the improvement of the tensile strength, impact strength, Young's modulus and flexural modulus. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was employed to improve the interfacial adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR matrix. Better performance has been attributed with the addition of compatibilizer due to improvements of the wetting of the fiber surface. The present of MAPP had improved tensile strength, Young's modulus and flexural stiffness. Scanning electron microscope was also employed to examine the fiber surface, fiber pull-out, and fiber-matrix interaction. SEM micrographs have shown that good adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR was achieved when the compatibilizer was applied. Thermal properties of composites were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). TGA measurements have revealed that the present of compatibilizer had improved the degradation temperature of the composites. DMA difractogram showed that the KF-TPNR composites with higher fiber loading demonstrated higher storage modulus (E') and loss modulus (E''). An addition of compatibilizer enhanced the tan δ values indicating the improvement in the interphase.

AB - New kenaf fiber (KF) based thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) composite with polypropylene (PP) were compounded by melt blending method. Kenaf fiber and TPNR were mixed at various fiber fraction (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 v f %) using internal mixer, Thermo Haake 600p. The effects of mixing parameters were investigated for KF-TPNR composites at various mixing conditions (mixing temperature, rate of rotation and mixing time). Mechanical properties were evaluated for their tensile strength (σ max), Young's modulus (E) and maximum strain. The study was found that the optimum processing parameters obtained at mixing speed of 11rpm, temperature of 180°C and processing time of 12minutes. The mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using tensile, impact, and flexural test. The incorporation of the fiber into TPNR matrix has resulted in the improvement of the tensile strength, impact strength, Young's modulus and flexural modulus. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was employed to improve the interfacial adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR matrix. Better performance has been attributed with the addition of compatibilizer due to improvements of the wetting of the fiber surface. The present of MAPP had improved tensile strength, Young's modulus and flexural stiffness. Scanning electron microscope was also employed to examine the fiber surface, fiber pull-out, and fiber-matrix interaction. SEM micrographs have shown that good adhesion between kenaf fiber and TPNR was achieved when the compatibilizer was applied. Thermal properties of composites were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). TGA measurements have revealed that the present of compatibilizer had improved the degradation temperature of the composites. DMA difractogram showed that the KF-TPNR composites with higher fiber loading demonstrated higher storage modulus (E') and loss modulus (E''). An addition of compatibilizer enhanced the tan δ values indicating the improvement in the interphase.

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