IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol Specifications, Threats and Countermeasures

A Survey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is the core protocol of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) suite. The motive behind NDP is to replace Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), router discovery and redirect functions in Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). NDP is known as the stateless protocol as it is utilized by the IPv6 nodes to determine joined hosts as well as routers in an IPv6 network without the need of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. NDP is susceptible to attacks due to the deficiency in its authentication process. Securing NDP is extremely crucial as the Internet is prevalent nowadays and it is widely used in communal areas; for instance, airports, where trust doesn’t exist among the users. A malicious host is able to expose Denial of Service (DoS) or Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks by injecting spoofed address in NDP messages. With the intention to protect the NDP many solutions were proposed by researchers. However, these solutions either introduced new protocols that need to be supported by all nodes or built mechanisms that require the cooperation of all nodes. Moreover, some solutions are deviating from the layering principals of Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. Therefore, the necessity to study NDP in details to recognize and identify the points that could be a source of enhancement has become mandatory task. This article revolves around the survey of the vulnerabilities mitigations approaches of NDP since the time of the protocol development up to the date of finalized this paper. We described the technical specifications of NDP showing its components, functions and working procedures. In addition each threat of NDP is classified and explained in details. Open challenges of NDP and recommended future directions for scientific research are presented at the end of this paper

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 30 Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Internet protocols
Specifications
Network protocols
Routers
Open systems

Keywords

  • CGA
  • IPv6
  • NDP
  • SEND

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

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title = "IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol Specifications, Threats and Countermeasures: A Survey",
abstract = "Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is the core protocol of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) suite. The motive behind NDP is to replace Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), router discovery and redirect functions in Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). NDP is known as the stateless protocol as it is utilized by the IPv6 nodes to determine joined hosts as well as routers in an IPv6 network without the need of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. NDP is susceptible to attacks due to the deficiency in its authentication process. Securing NDP is extremely crucial as the Internet is prevalent nowadays and it is widely used in communal areas; for instance, airports, where trust doesn’t exist among the users. A malicious host is able to expose Denial of Service (DoS) or Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks by injecting spoofed address in NDP messages. With the intention to protect the NDP many solutions were proposed by researchers. However, these solutions either introduced new protocols that need to be supported by all nodes or built mechanisms that require the cooperation of all nodes. Moreover, some solutions are deviating from the layering principals of Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. Therefore, the necessity to study NDP in details to recognize and identify the points that could be a source of enhancement has become mandatory task. This article revolves around the survey of the vulnerabilities mitigations approaches of NDP since the time of the protocol development up to the date of finalized this paper. We described the technical specifications of NDP showing its components, functions and working procedures. In addition each threat of NDP is classified and explained in details. Open challenges of NDP and recommended future directions for scientific research are presented at the end of this paper",
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N2 - Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is the core protocol of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) suite. The motive behind NDP is to replace Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), router discovery and redirect functions in Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). NDP is known as the stateless protocol as it is utilized by the IPv6 nodes to determine joined hosts as well as routers in an IPv6 network without the need of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. NDP is susceptible to attacks due to the deficiency in its authentication process. Securing NDP is extremely crucial as the Internet is prevalent nowadays and it is widely used in communal areas; for instance, airports, where trust doesn’t exist among the users. A malicious host is able to expose Denial of Service (DoS) or Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attacks by injecting spoofed address in NDP messages. With the intention to protect the NDP many solutions were proposed by researchers. However, these solutions either introduced new protocols that need to be supported by all nodes or built mechanisms that require the cooperation of all nodes. Moreover, some solutions are deviating from the layering principals of Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. Therefore, the necessity to study NDP in details to recognize and identify the points that could be a source of enhancement has become mandatory task. This article revolves around the survey of the vulnerabilities mitigations approaches of NDP since the time of the protocol development up to the date of finalized this paper. We described the technical specifications of NDP showing its components, functions and working procedures. In addition each threat of NDP is classified and explained in details. Open challenges of NDP and recommended future directions for scientific research are presented at the end of this paper

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