Investigation of the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to surface water

A case study of persistence of pharmaceuticals in effluent of sewage treatment plants and hospitals in Malaysia

Fouad F. Al-Qaim, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Mohamed Rozali Othman, Zainab H. Mussa, Zuriati Zakaria, Jalifah Latip, Wan M. Afiq

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The present work reports the occurrence and monitoring of 11 pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, gliclazide, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid) in surface water and in the influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and hospitals (HSPs). A total of 105 water samples were analyzed using solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS). The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in STP influent and effluent ranged from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 3909 ng L<sup>-1</sup> and 12 to 577 ng L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in the hospital influent and effluent ranged from 28 to 1644 ng L<sup>-1</sup> and 20 to 1540 ng L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The highest concentration detected in the sampling points was 9099 ng L<sup>-1</sup> for caffeine in influent STP. The presence of prazosin has never been reported before in literature. In this study, prazosin was detected in all studied samples, and the highest concentration was 525 ng L<sup>-1</sup> in influent STP. Chemometric analysis was used to assess the presence of pharmaceuticals in samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1124-1135
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015

Fingerprint

Sewage treatment plants
Surface waters
Prazosin
Effluents
Caffeine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Mefenamic Acid
Gliclazide
Levonorgestrel
Enalapril
Hydrochlorothiazide
Simvastatin
Diclofenac
Liquid chromatography
Carbamazepine
Nifedipine
Mass spectrometry
Sampling
Water
Monitoring

Keywords

  • Chemometric analysis
  • Monitoring of pharmaceuticals
  • Pharmaceutical removal
  • Pharmaceuticals in water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

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title = "Investigation of the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to surface water: A case study of persistence of pharmaceuticals in effluent of sewage treatment plants and hospitals in Malaysia",
abstract = "The present work reports the occurrence and monitoring of 11 pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, gliclazide, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid) in surface water and in the influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and hospitals (HSPs). A total of 105 water samples were analyzed using solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS). The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in STP influent and effluent ranged from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 3909 ng L-1 and 12 to 577 ng L-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in the hospital influent and effluent ranged from 28 to 1644 ng L-1 and 20 to 1540 ng L-1, respectively. The highest concentration detected in the sampling points was 9099 ng L-1 for caffeine in influent STP. The presence of prazosin has never been reported before in literature. In this study, prazosin was detected in all studied samples, and the highest concentration was 525 ng L-1 in influent STP. Chemometric analysis was used to assess the presence of pharmaceuticals in samples.",
keywords = "Chemometric analysis, Monitoring of pharmaceuticals, Pharmaceutical removal, Pharmaceuticals in water",
author = "Al-Qaim, {Fouad F.} and Abdullah, {Md. Pauzi} and Othman, {Mohamed Rozali} and Mussa, {Zainab H.} and Zuriati Zakaria and Jalifah Latip and Afiq, {Wan M.}",
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T1 - Investigation of the environmental transport of human pharmaceuticals to surface water

T2 - A case study of persistence of pharmaceuticals in effluent of sewage treatment plants and hospitals in Malaysia

AU - Al-Qaim, Fouad F.

AU - Abdullah, Md. Pauzi

AU - Othman, Mohamed Rozali

AU - Mussa, Zainab H.

AU - Zakaria, Zuriati

AU - Latip, Jalifah

AU - Afiq, Wan M.

PY - 2015/6/1

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N2 - The present work reports the occurrence and monitoring of 11 pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, gliclazide, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid) in surface water and in the influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and hospitals (HSPs). A total of 105 water samples were analyzed using solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS). The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in STP influent and effluent ranged from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 3909 ng L-1 and 12 to 577 ng L-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in the hospital influent and effluent ranged from 28 to 1644 ng L-1 and 20 to 1540 ng L-1, respectively. The highest concentration detected in the sampling points was 9099 ng L-1 for caffeine in influent STP. The presence of prazosin has never been reported before in literature. In this study, prazosin was detected in all studied samples, and the highest concentration was 525 ng L-1 in influent STP. Chemometric analysis was used to assess the presence of pharmaceuticals in samples.

AB - The present work reports the occurrence and monitoring of 11 pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, gliclazide, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid) in surface water and in the influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and hospitals (HSPs). A total of 105 water samples were analyzed using solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS). The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in STP influent and effluent ranged from limit of quantification (LOQ) to 3909 ng L-1 and 12 to 577 ng L-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in the hospital influent and effluent ranged from 28 to 1644 ng L-1 and 20 to 1540 ng L-1, respectively. The highest concentration detected in the sampling points was 9099 ng L-1 for caffeine in influent STP. The presence of prazosin has never been reported before in literature. In this study, prazosin was detected in all studied samples, and the highest concentration was 525 ng L-1 in influent STP. Chemometric analysis was used to assess the presence of pharmaceuticals in samples.

KW - Chemometric analysis

KW - Monitoring of pharmaceuticals

KW - Pharmaceutical removal

KW - Pharmaceuticals in water

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