Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia

M. Eisakhani, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Othman A. Karim, A. Malakahmad

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. It has been investigated that non-point pollution sources (NPSs) are the main contributor of this water quality drop. NPSs are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Therefore, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate land use and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of NPSs of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56×108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46×108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31×106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91×104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50×105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, Non-structural management was recommended for the study area, which includes establish and provide technical advisory services unit, develop demonstration farms and provide incentives to encourage farmers in implementing sustainable agricultural management practices.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment
Pages231-241
Number of pages11
Volume148
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Event3rd International Conference on Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards - Ravage of the Planet III, RAV 2011 - Selangor
Duration: 13 Dec 201115 Dec 2011

Other

Other3rd International Conference on Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards - Ravage of the Planet III, RAV 2011
CitySelangor
Period13/12/1115/12/11

Fingerprint

nonpoint source pollution
pollutant source
water pollution
urban development
GIS
water quality
agricultural management
management practice
incentive
urban area
pesticide
fertilizer
farm
runoff
spatial distribution
phosphorus
agriculture
land use
nitrogen
river

Keywords

  • Cameron highlands
  • Non-structural management
  • Water pollution sources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Eisakhani, M., Abdullah, M. P., A. Karim, O., & Malakahmad, A. (2011). Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. In WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Vol. 148, pp. 231-241) https://doi.org/10.2495/RAV110221

Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. / Eisakhani, M.; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; A. Karim, Othman; Malakahmad, A.

WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Vol. 148 2011. p. 231-241.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Eisakhani, M, Abdullah, MP, A. Karim, O & Malakahmad, A 2011, Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. in WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. vol. 148, pp. 231-241, 3rd International Conference on Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards - Ravage of the Planet III, RAV 2011, Selangor, 13/12/11. https://doi.org/10.2495/RAV110221
Eisakhani M, Abdullah MP, A. Karim O, Malakahmad A. Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. In WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Vol. 148. 2011. p. 231-241 https://doi.org/10.2495/RAV110221
Eisakhani, M. ; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi ; A. Karim, Othman ; Malakahmad, A. / Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. Vol. 148 2011. pp. 231-241
@inproceedings{c2bc4f8c62cf4713857ecb423112f581,
title = "Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia",
abstract = "The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. It has been investigated that non-point pollution sources (NPSs) are the main contributor of this water quality drop. NPSs are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Therefore, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate land use and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of NPSs of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56×108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46×108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31×106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91×104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50×105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, Non-structural management was recommended for the study area, which includes establish and provide technical advisory services unit, develop demonstration farms and provide incentives to encourage farmers in implementing sustainable agricultural management practices.",
keywords = "Cameron highlands, Non-structural management, Water pollution sources",
author = "M. Eisakhani and Abdullah, {Md. Pauzi} and {A. Karim}, Othman and A. Malakahmad",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.2495/RAV110221",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781845645328",
volume = "148",
pages = "231--241",
booktitle = "WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Investigation and management of water pollution sources in Cameron highlands, Malaysia

AU - Eisakhani, M.

AU - Abdullah, Md. Pauzi

AU - A. Karim, Othman

AU - Malakahmad, A.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. It has been investigated that non-point pollution sources (NPSs) are the main contributor of this water quality drop. NPSs are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Therefore, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate land use and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of NPSs of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56×108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46×108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31×106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91×104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50×105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, Non-structural management was recommended for the study area, which includes establish and provide technical advisory services unit, develop demonstration farms and provide incentives to encourage farmers in implementing sustainable agricultural management practices.

AB - The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. It has been investigated that non-point pollution sources (NPSs) are the main contributor of this water quality drop. NPSs are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Therefore, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate land use and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of NPSs of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56×108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46×108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31×106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91×104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50×105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, Non-structural management was recommended for the study area, which includes establish and provide technical advisory services unit, develop demonstration farms and provide incentives to encourage farmers in implementing sustainable agricultural management practices.

KW - Cameron highlands

KW - Non-structural management

KW - Water pollution sources

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84865709083&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84865709083&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2495/RAV110221

DO - 10.2495/RAV110221

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9781845645328

VL - 148

SP - 231

EP - 241

BT - WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment

ER -