Interlaminar fracture toughness of multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites treated with coupling agent

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Abstract

The effect of surface treatment on the interlaminar fracture toughness of silk/epoxy composite has been studied. The multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites were produced by a vacuum bagging process in an autoclave with increasing layers of silk fibre of between 8 and 14 layers. Two sets of sample were prepared, in the first sets silk were treated with a surface treatment using a silane-based coupling agent and in the second sets, silk fibre were not treated at all. All the samples have been tested for mode I interlaminar fracture using double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) testing method. It was found that the interlaminar fracture toughness, GIC of the composite in set 1 are higher than set 2 and GIC increases as the number of silk layers increases for both sets. Stable crack propagation is observed for both sets of samples during the tests and the crack propagation areas for the untreated fibres showed all the fibres were bare with no matrix covering them as were seen at 100x and 500x magnification using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Failure occurred at the fibre-matrix interface with no fibre bridging observed between the two fracture surfaces. The smooth clean surface of the silk fibres is the result of weak interfacial debonding. Samples with treated fibre surfaces shown a slightly improves adhesion but still does not affect much on the interlaminar fracture properties. The results give the indication of the effect of the fibre surface treatment and number of layers because the thicknesses of all the specimens are the same. In order to increase the interlaminar fracture toughness of woven silk/epoxy composites, surface treatment using silane based coupling agent gives a slightly improve properties and usage of multiple layers of woven silk fibre has proven to be effective.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-462
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Scientific Research
Volume27
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Fracture Toughness
fracture toughness
Silk
Epoxy
Coupling agents
silk
epoxides
Multilayer
Fracture toughness
Composite
Fiber
Fibers
Composite materials
Surface Treatment
Surface treatment
Silanes
crack propagation
Crack Propagation
Crack propagation
fibre

Keywords

  • Coatings
  • Coupling agent
  • Fracture properties
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Surface morphology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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title = "Interlaminar fracture toughness of multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites treated with coupling agent",
abstract = "The effect of surface treatment on the interlaminar fracture toughness of silk/epoxy composite has been studied. The multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites were produced by a vacuum bagging process in an autoclave with increasing layers of silk fibre of between 8 and 14 layers. Two sets of sample were prepared, in the first sets silk were treated with a surface treatment using a silane-based coupling agent and in the second sets, silk fibre were not treated at all. All the samples have been tested for mode I interlaminar fracture using double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) testing method. It was found that the interlaminar fracture toughness, GIC of the composite in set 1 are higher than set 2 and GIC increases as the number of silk layers increases for both sets. Stable crack propagation is observed for both sets of samples during the tests and the crack propagation areas for the untreated fibres showed all the fibres were bare with no matrix covering them as were seen at 100x and 500x magnification using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Failure occurred at the fibre-matrix interface with no fibre bridging observed between the two fracture surfaces. The smooth clean surface of the silk fibres is the result of weak interfacial debonding. Samples with treated fibre surfaces shown a slightly improves adhesion but still does not affect much on the interlaminar fracture properties. The results give the indication of the effect of the fibre surface treatment and number of layers because the thicknesses of all the specimens are the same. In order to increase the interlaminar fracture toughness of woven silk/epoxy composites, surface treatment using silane based coupling agent gives a slightly improve properties and usage of multiple layers of woven silk fibre has proven to be effective.",
keywords = "Coatings, Coupling agent, Fracture properties, Scanning electron microscopy, Surface morphology",
author = "Rozli Zulkifli and Azhari, {Che Husna} and Ghazali, {Mariyam Jameelah} and Ismail, {Ahmad Rasdan} and Sulong, {Abu Bakar}",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
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T1 - Interlaminar fracture toughness of multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites treated with coupling agent

AU - Zulkifli, Rozli

AU - Azhari, Che Husna

AU - Ghazali, Mariyam Jameelah

AU - Ismail, Ahmad Rasdan

AU - Sulong, Abu Bakar

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The effect of surface treatment on the interlaminar fracture toughness of silk/epoxy composite has been studied. The multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites were produced by a vacuum bagging process in an autoclave with increasing layers of silk fibre of between 8 and 14 layers. Two sets of sample were prepared, in the first sets silk were treated with a surface treatment using a silane-based coupling agent and in the second sets, silk fibre were not treated at all. All the samples have been tested for mode I interlaminar fracture using double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) testing method. It was found that the interlaminar fracture toughness, GIC of the composite in set 1 are higher than set 2 and GIC increases as the number of silk layers increases for both sets. Stable crack propagation is observed for both sets of samples during the tests and the crack propagation areas for the untreated fibres showed all the fibres were bare with no matrix covering them as were seen at 100x and 500x magnification using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Failure occurred at the fibre-matrix interface with no fibre bridging observed between the two fracture surfaces. The smooth clean surface of the silk fibres is the result of weak interfacial debonding. Samples with treated fibre surfaces shown a slightly improves adhesion but still does not affect much on the interlaminar fracture properties. The results give the indication of the effect of the fibre surface treatment and number of layers because the thicknesses of all the specimens are the same. In order to increase the interlaminar fracture toughness of woven silk/epoxy composites, surface treatment using silane based coupling agent gives a slightly improve properties and usage of multiple layers of woven silk fibre has proven to be effective.

AB - The effect of surface treatment on the interlaminar fracture toughness of silk/epoxy composite has been studied. The multi-layer woven silk/epoxy composites were produced by a vacuum bagging process in an autoclave with increasing layers of silk fibre of between 8 and 14 layers. Two sets of sample were prepared, in the first sets silk were treated with a surface treatment using a silane-based coupling agent and in the second sets, silk fibre were not treated at all. All the samples have been tested for mode I interlaminar fracture using double cantilever beam specimens (DCB) testing method. It was found that the interlaminar fracture toughness, GIC of the composite in set 1 are higher than set 2 and GIC increases as the number of silk layers increases for both sets. Stable crack propagation is observed for both sets of samples during the tests and the crack propagation areas for the untreated fibres showed all the fibres were bare with no matrix covering them as were seen at 100x and 500x magnification using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Failure occurred at the fibre-matrix interface with no fibre bridging observed between the two fracture surfaces. The smooth clean surface of the silk fibres is the result of weak interfacial debonding. Samples with treated fibre surfaces shown a slightly improves adhesion but still does not affect much on the interlaminar fracture properties. The results give the indication of the effect of the fibre surface treatment and number of layers because the thicknesses of all the specimens are the same. In order to increase the interlaminar fracture toughness of woven silk/epoxy composites, surface treatment using silane based coupling agent gives a slightly improve properties and usage of multiple layers of woven silk fibre has proven to be effective.

KW - Coatings

KW - Coupling agent

KW - Fracture properties

KW - Scanning electron microscopy

KW - Surface morphology

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VL - 27

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JO - European Journal of Scientific Research

JF - European Journal of Scientific Research

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