Influences of inorganic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the sources of PM2.5 in the Southeast Asian urban sites

Firoz Khan, Saw Wuan Hwa, Lim Chee Hou, Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, Norhaniza Amil, Noorlin Mohamad, Mazrura Sahani, Shoffian Amin Jaafar, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Talib Latif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PM2.5 released from urban sources and regional biomass fire is of great concern due to the deleterious effect on human health. This study was conducted to determine the chemical compositions andsource apportionment of PM2.5. Twenty-four-hour PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban monitoring sites in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 12 November 2013 to 15 January 2014 using a high volume air sampler (HVS). The source apportionment of PM2.5 was determined using positive matrix factorization (PMF) version 5.0. Overall, the PM2.5 mean concentrations ranged from 16 to 55 μg m−3 with a mean of 23 ± 9 μg m−3. The results of enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, and Cs mainly originated from non-crustal sources. The dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (I[cd]P), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F). PMF 5.0 results showed that the secondary aerosol coupled with biomass burning was the largest contributor followed by combustion of fuel oil and road dust, soil dust source and sea salt and nitrate aerosol, accounting for 34, 25, 24 and 17% of PM2.5 mass, respectively. On the other hand, biomass and wood burning (42%) was the predominant source of PAHs followed by combustion of fossil fuel (36%) and natural gas and coal burning (22%). The broad overview of the PM2.5 sources will help to adopt adequate mitigation measures in the management of future urban air quality in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalAir Quality, Atmosphere and Health
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 13 Jul 2017

Fingerprint

fluoranthene
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
urban site
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
pyrene
Biomass
PAH
combustion
aerosol
dust
Aerosols
Dust
matrix
biomass
sea salt
biomass burning
Fuel Oils
Air
factor analysis
Natural Gas

Keywords

  • Enrichment factor
  • PM
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Positive matrix factorization
  • Source apportionment
  • Urban environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Influences of inorganic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the sources of PM2.5 in the Southeast Asian urban sites. / Khan, Firoz; Hwa, Saw Wuan; Hou, Lim Chee; Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah; Amil, Norhaniza; Mohamad, Noorlin; Sahani, Mazrura; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Latif, Mohd Talib.

In: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 13.07.2017, p. 1-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khan, Firoz ; Hwa, Saw Wuan ; Hou, Lim Chee ; Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah ; Amil, Norhaniza ; Mohamad, Noorlin ; Sahani, Mazrura ; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin ; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul ; Latif, Mohd Talib. / Influences of inorganic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the sources of PM2.5 in the Southeast Asian urban sites. In: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health. 2017 ; pp. 1-15.
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