Indoor Particulate Matters, Microbial Count Assessments, and Wheezing Symptoms among Toddlers in Urban Day Care Centers in the District of Seremban, Malaysia

Raihan Khamal, Zaleha Md Isa, Rosnah Sutan, Nor Mohd Razif Noraini, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Indoor air quality in day care centers (DCCs) is an emerging research topic nowadays. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and microbes have been linked to respiratory health effects in children, particularly asthma-related symptoms such as night coughs and wheezing due to early exposure to indoor air contaminants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between wheezing symptoms among toddlers attending DCCs and indoor particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, and microbial count level in urban DCCs in the District of Seremban, Malaysia. METHODS: Data collection was carried out at 10 DCCs located in the urban area of Seremban. Modified validated questionnaires were distributed to parents to obtain their children's health symptoms. The parameters measured were indoor PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide, total bacteria count, total fungus count, temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health analytical method. RESULTS: All 10 DCCs investigated had at least one indoor air quality parameter exceeding the acceptable level of standard guidelines. The prevalence of toddlers having wheezing symptoms was 18.9%. There was a significant different in mean concentration of PM2.5 and total bacteria count between those with and those without wheezing symptoms (P = 0.02, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Urban DCCs are exposed to many air pollutants that may enter their buildings from various adjacent sources. The particle concentrations and presence of microbes in DCCs might increase the risk of exposed children for respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, in their later life.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of global health
Volume85
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jan 2019

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Symptom Assessment
Particulate Matter
Malaysia
Respiratory Sounds
Indoor Air Pollution
Air Pollutants
Asthma
Air
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
Bacteria
Carbon Monoxide
Humidity
Cough
Fungi
Parents
Guidelines
Temperature
Health
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Indoor Particulate Matters, Microbial Count Assessments, and Wheezing Symptoms among Toddlers in Urban Day Care Centers in the District of Seremban, Malaysia. / Khamal, Raihan; Md Isa, Zaleha; Sutan, Rosnah; Noraini, Nor Mohd Razif; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal.

In: Annals of global health, Vol. 85, No. 1, 22.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Indoor air quality in day care centers (DCCs) is an emerging research topic nowadays. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and microbes have been linked to respiratory health effects in children, particularly asthma-related symptoms such as night coughs and wheezing due to early exposure to indoor air contaminants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between wheezing symptoms among toddlers attending DCCs and indoor particulate matter, PM10, PM2.5, and microbial count level in urban DCCs in the District of Seremban, Malaysia. METHODS: Data collection was carried out at 10 DCCs located in the urban area of Seremban. Modified validated questionnaires were distributed to parents to obtain their children's health symptoms. The parameters measured were indoor PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide, total bacteria count, total fungus count, temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health analytical method. RESULTS: All 10 DCCs investigated had at least one indoor air quality parameter exceeding the acceptable level of standard guidelines. The prevalence of toddlers having wheezing symptoms was 18.9{\%}. There was a significant different in mean concentration of PM2.5 and total bacteria count between those with and those without wheezing symptoms (P = 0.02, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Urban DCCs are exposed to many air pollutants that may enter their buildings from various adjacent sources. The particle concentrations and presence of microbes in DCCs might increase the risk of exposed children for respiratory diseases, particularly asthma, in their later life.",
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