In-water injection of high-pressure pulsed gas jet

A simple analytical tool for direct injection of gaseous fuels in automotive engine

Taib Iskandar Mohamad

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Visualizing high pressure pulsed gas jet can be challenging due to its weak scattering of light which requires reliable flow tracer. Complex and costly laser source and high speed camera settings using shadowgraph, Schlieren and Laser Induced Fluorescent (LIF) techniques with seeding of flow tracers such as acetone have been used. In the spirit of simplification, this paper presents a technique to visualize high pressure pulsed gas jet in liquid ambient. It can be used as predictive tool to investigate the structure, dynamic and interaction of gas jet with the environment [1]. A gas injector with square-shaped nozzle was used. High pressure nitrogen gas at 5 and 6 MPa with 12 ms injection pulse exits the injector through a 1 mm<sup>2</sup> square nozzle into quiescent water. The injector tip is immersed below water surface in an optically-accessed container and placed inside an extremely low illuminated square chamber. Two small windows on opposite walls of the chamber allow image capturing with injection-flash light synchronization. Images of the gas jets formed from nozzle at various time after the start of the injection (SOI) were captured by a digital camera. During exposure, the flash light was triggered for 1 ms at some times after SOI, thus images captured correspond to the flash timing. Results showed that the shape of the gas jet was in agreement with the vortex ball model but with difference in the magnitude of penetration with respect to previous works. Some similarities in the gas injection behavior are found in the liquid and gas ambient. The tip penetration and gas width in water environment are about half of the magnitude in the gas environment. A dimensionless gas dynamic analysis shows a good agreement in the trend of jet development between the gas environment using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescent (PLIF) imaging and in-water imaging techniques. Results indicate that both gas jet length and width are very sensitive to injection pressure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)386-392
    Number of pages7
    JournalFuel
    Volume160
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 14 Aug 2015

    Fingerprint

    Water injection
    Direct injection
    Gases
    Engines
    Nozzles
    Water
    Lasers
    Imaging techniques
    Gas dynamics
    High speed cameras
    Digital cameras
    Liquids
    Acetone
    Dynamic analysis
    Containers
    Synchronization
    Vortex flow
    Nitrogen
    Scattering

    Keywords

    • Compressed natural gas
    • Direct injection
    • Flow visualization
    • Gas jet dynamics
    • Sonic flow

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Organic Chemistry

    Cite this

    In-water injection of high-pressure pulsed gas jet : A simple analytical tool for direct injection of gaseous fuels in automotive engine. / Mohamad, Taib Iskandar.

    In: Fuel, Vol. 160, 14.08.2015, p. 386-392.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    abstract = "Visualizing high pressure pulsed gas jet can be challenging due to its weak scattering of light which requires reliable flow tracer. Complex and costly laser source and high speed camera settings using shadowgraph, Schlieren and Laser Induced Fluorescent (LIF) techniques with seeding of flow tracers such as acetone have been used. In the spirit of simplification, this paper presents a technique to visualize high pressure pulsed gas jet in liquid ambient. It can be used as predictive tool to investigate the structure, dynamic and interaction of gas jet with the environment [1]. A gas injector with square-shaped nozzle was used. High pressure nitrogen gas at 5 and 6 MPa with 12 ms injection pulse exits the injector through a 1 mm2 square nozzle into quiescent water. The injector tip is immersed below water surface in an optically-accessed container and placed inside an extremely low illuminated square chamber. Two small windows on opposite walls of the chamber allow image capturing with injection-flash light synchronization. Images of the gas jets formed from nozzle at various time after the start of the injection (SOI) were captured by a digital camera. During exposure, the flash light was triggered for 1 ms at some times after SOI, thus images captured correspond to the flash timing. Results showed that the shape of the gas jet was in agreement with the vortex ball model but with difference in the magnitude of penetration with respect to previous works. Some similarities in the gas injection behavior are found in the liquid and gas ambient. The tip penetration and gas width in water environment are about half of the magnitude in the gas environment. A dimensionless gas dynamic analysis shows a good agreement in the trend of jet development between the gas environment using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescent (PLIF) imaging and in-water imaging techniques. Results indicate that both gas jet length and width are very sensitive to injection pressure.",
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