In-depth understanding of core-shell nanoarchitecture evolution of g-C3N4@C, N co-doped anatase/rutile: Efficient charge separation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Juhana Jaafar, M. F. M. Zain, Lorna Effery Minggu, Mohammad Kassim, Mohamad Saufi Rosmi, Nur Hashimah Alias, Nor Azureen Mohamad Nor, W. N. W. Salleh, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Herein, we demonstrated the simultaneous formation of multi-component heterojunction consisting graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and C, N co-doped anatase/rutile mixed phase by using facile sol-gel assisted heat treatment. The evolution of core-shell nanostructures heterojunction formation was elucidated by varying the temperature of heat treatment from 300 °C to 600 °C. Homogeneous heterojunction formation between g-C3N4 and anatase/rutile mixed phase was observed in gT400 with C and N doping into TiO2 lattice by O substitution. The core-shell nanoarchitectures between g-C3N4 as shell, and anatase/rutile mixed phase as core with C and N atoms are doped at the interstitial positions of TiO2 lattice was observed in gT500. The result indicated that core-shell nanoarchitectures photocatalyst (gT500) prepared at 500 ◦C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the possible mechanisms of charge generation, migration, action species and reaction that probably occur at the gT500 sample were also proposed. The photodegradation results of gT500 correlated completely with the results of the PEC and photoluminescence analysis, which directly evidenced improved charge separation and migration as the crucial parameters governing photocatalysis. It is worthy to note that, the simultaneous formation of multicomponent heterojunction with core-shell structure provided an enormous impact in designing highly active photocatalyst with superior interfacial charge transfer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)302-318
Number of pages17
JournalApplied Surface Science
Volume436
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Titanium dioxide
Heterojunctions
Photocatalysts
Heat treatment
Carbon nitride
Photocatalysis
Photodegradation
Sol-gels
Charge transfer
Nanostructures
Photoluminescence
Substitution reactions
Doping (additives)
Irradiation
Degradation
Atoms
titanium dioxide
Temperature

Keywords

  • Core-shell
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Interfacial charge transfer transfer
  • Mesopores and macropores
  • Visible-light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

In-depth understanding of core-shell nanoarchitecture evolution of g-C3N4@C, N co-doped anatase/rutile : Efficient charge separation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. / Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Jaafar, Juhana; M. Zain, M. F.; Effery Minggu, Lorna; Kassim, Mohammad; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Mohamad Nor, Nor Azureen; W. Salleh, W. N.; Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan.

In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 436, 01.04.2018, p. 302-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa ; Jaafar, Juhana ; M. Zain, M. F. ; Effery Minggu, Lorna ; Kassim, Mohammad ; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi ; Alias, Nur Hashimah ; Mohamad Nor, Nor Azureen ; W. Salleh, W. N. ; Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan. / In-depth understanding of core-shell nanoarchitecture evolution of g-C3N4@C, N co-doped anatase/rutile : Efficient charge separation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. In: Applied Surface Science. 2018 ; Vol. 436. pp. 302-318.
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AU - Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa

AU - Jaafar, Juhana

AU - M. Zain, M. F.

AU - Effery Minggu, Lorna

AU - Kassim, Mohammad

AU - Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi

AU - Alias, Nur Hashimah

AU - Mohamad Nor, Nor Azureen

AU - W. Salleh, W. N.

AU - Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan

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AB - Herein, we demonstrated the simultaneous formation of multi-component heterojunction consisting graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and C, N co-doped anatase/rutile mixed phase by using facile sol-gel assisted heat treatment. The evolution of core-shell nanostructures heterojunction formation was elucidated by varying the temperature of heat treatment from 300 °C to 600 °C. Homogeneous heterojunction formation between g-C3N4 and anatase/rutile mixed phase was observed in gT400 with C and N doping into TiO2 lattice by O substitution. The core-shell nanoarchitectures between g-C3N4 as shell, and anatase/rutile mixed phase as core with C and N atoms are doped at the interstitial positions of TiO2 lattice was observed in gT500. The result indicated that core-shell nanoarchitectures photocatalyst (gT500) prepared at 500 ◦C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the possible mechanisms of charge generation, migration, action species and reaction that probably occur at the gT500 sample were also proposed. The photodegradation results of gT500 correlated completely with the results of the PEC and photoluminescence analysis, which directly evidenced improved charge separation and migration as the crucial parameters governing photocatalysis. It is worthy to note that, the simultaneous formation of multicomponent heterojunction with core-shell structure provided an enormous impact in designing highly active photocatalyst with superior interfacial charge transfer.

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