Hypoglycemia awareness among insulin-treated patients with diabetes in Malaysia

A cohort subanalysis of the HAT study

Zanariah Hussein, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, Siew Pheng Chan, Anand Jain, Shweta Uppal, Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aims The present Malaysian cohort analysis determined the prevalence of hypoglycemia among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending primary care- or hospital-based diabetes clinics in Malaysia and their awareness of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Methods The Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study was a non-interventional, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective analysis of hypoglycemic events in 24 countries, using self-assessment questionnaires and diaries among patients with T1DM/T2DM aged ≥18 years, using insulin for >12 months. This report focuses on prospective data, as they are less prone to recall bias. Results There were 1153 participants in the Malaysian cohort (114 T1DM; 1039 T2DM). In the prospective period, 50.4% and 33.4% of patients reported ≥1 hypoglycemic events, with estimated rates of 20.3 and 13.1 events per patient-year of exposure in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. 24.8% and 16.1% of patients with T1DM or T2DM, respectively, reported ≥1 nocturnal hypoglycemic event. The majority of patients (96.5%, T1DM; 91.8%, T2DM) knew what hypoglycemia was prior to the study. Impaired awareness was present in 48.0% (T1DM) and 36.9% (T2DM) of patients. In the prospective period, 50% of patients with T1DM or T2DM consulted a doctor or nurse following a hypoglycemia episode. Conclusions Half of patients with T1DM and a third of patients with T2DM reported ≥1 hypoglycemic event during the prospective period. Although the majority of patients knew the typical features of hypoglycemia, many reported impaired ability to recognize symptoms in real life. The present findings highlight the importance of patient education and physician awareness in dealing with hypoglycemia, in particular the burden of hypoglycemic unawareness. Clinical trial number This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01696266 on 26 September 2012.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-49
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume133
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Hypoglycemia
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hypoglycemic Agents
Aptitude
Patient Education
Primary Health Care
Cohort Studies
Nurses
Clinical Trials

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • HAT study
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Insulin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Hypoglycemia awareness among insulin-treated patients with diabetes in Malaysia : A cohort subanalysis of the HAT study. / Hussein, Zanariah; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Chan, Siew Pheng; Jain, Anand; Uppal, Shweta; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan.

In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 133, 01.11.2017, p. 40-49.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hussein, Zanariah ; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi ; Chan, Siew Pheng ; Jain, Anand ; Uppal, Shweta ; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan. / Hypoglycemia awareness among insulin-treated patients with diabetes in Malaysia : A cohort subanalysis of the HAT study. In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017 ; Vol. 133. pp. 40-49.
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AU - Uppal, Shweta

AU - Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan

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N2 - Aims The present Malaysian cohort analysis determined the prevalence of hypoglycemia among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending primary care- or hospital-based diabetes clinics in Malaysia and their awareness of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Methods The Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study was a non-interventional, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective analysis of hypoglycemic events in 24 countries, using self-assessment questionnaires and diaries among patients with T1DM/T2DM aged ≥18 years, using insulin for >12 months. This report focuses on prospective data, as they are less prone to recall bias. Results There were 1153 participants in the Malaysian cohort (114 T1DM; 1039 T2DM). In the prospective period, 50.4% and 33.4% of patients reported ≥1 hypoglycemic events, with estimated rates of 20.3 and 13.1 events per patient-year of exposure in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. 24.8% and 16.1% of patients with T1DM or T2DM, respectively, reported ≥1 nocturnal hypoglycemic event. The majority of patients (96.5%, T1DM; 91.8%, T2DM) knew what hypoglycemia was prior to the study. Impaired awareness was present in 48.0% (T1DM) and 36.9% (T2DM) of patients. In the prospective period, 50% of patients with T1DM or T2DM consulted a doctor or nurse following a hypoglycemia episode. Conclusions Half of patients with T1DM and a third of patients with T2DM reported ≥1 hypoglycemic event during the prospective period. Although the majority of patients knew the typical features of hypoglycemia, many reported impaired ability to recognize symptoms in real life. The present findings highlight the importance of patient education and physician awareness in dealing with hypoglycemia, in particular the burden of hypoglycemic unawareness. Clinical trial number This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01696266 on 26 September 2012.

AB - Aims The present Malaysian cohort analysis determined the prevalence of hypoglycemia among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending primary care- or hospital-based diabetes clinics in Malaysia and their awareness of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Methods The Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study was a non-interventional, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective analysis of hypoglycemic events in 24 countries, using self-assessment questionnaires and diaries among patients with T1DM/T2DM aged ≥18 years, using insulin for >12 months. This report focuses on prospective data, as they are less prone to recall bias. Results There were 1153 participants in the Malaysian cohort (114 T1DM; 1039 T2DM). In the prospective period, 50.4% and 33.4% of patients reported ≥1 hypoglycemic events, with estimated rates of 20.3 and 13.1 events per patient-year of exposure in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. 24.8% and 16.1% of patients with T1DM or T2DM, respectively, reported ≥1 nocturnal hypoglycemic event. The majority of patients (96.5%, T1DM; 91.8%, T2DM) knew what hypoglycemia was prior to the study. Impaired awareness was present in 48.0% (T1DM) and 36.9% (T2DM) of patients. In the prospective period, 50% of patients with T1DM or T2DM consulted a doctor or nurse following a hypoglycemia episode. Conclusions Half of patients with T1DM and a third of patients with T2DM reported ≥1 hypoglycemic event during the prospective period. Although the majority of patients knew the typical features of hypoglycemia, many reported impaired ability to recognize symptoms in real life. The present findings highlight the importance of patient education and physician awareness in dealing with hypoglycemia, in particular the burden of hypoglycemic unawareness. Clinical trial number This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01696266 on 26 September 2012.

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