Hydrolytic cleavage of glycosidic bonds for cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) production by BmimHSO4 ionic liquid catalyst

Foo Wah Low, Nurul Asma Samsudin, Yulisa Yusoff, Xiao Yun Tan, Chin Wei Lai, Nowshad Amin, Sieh Kiong Tiong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Highly crystalline cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) were synthesized from cotton linters using Brønsted acid-type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (BmimHSO4) ionic liquid via the hydrolysis method. The integral properties and thermal stability of CNPs were evaluated under different concentrations of BmimHSO4 ionic liquid (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt.%). It was discovered that 15 wt% BmimHSO4 ionic liquid produced CNPs with the smallest crystallite size. Furthermore, this association with optimized [HSO4] anions had the potential to form cellulose fibers during the swelling/hydrolysis process induced by water addition. In contrast, excessive mass loading of 20 wt% and 25 wt% of BmimHSO4 ionic liquid to the Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) resulted in an increase of viscosity, which weakened the mobility of ions in cellulose fibers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results revealed that CNPs’ length and diameter of around 90 nm and 12 nm, respectively, were observed 2 h after the hydrolysis process. The presence of the [sbnd]OH functional group at 3440 cm–1 for regenerated BmimHSO4 sample proved the occurrence of swelling due to water addition and thus addressed the production of synthesized CNPs. Interestingly, the recovery of ionic liquid for reuse purposes reached up to 90% without creating any hazardous waste. These findings are beneficial to the environment and have great prospect towards enhancing sustainability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number178484
JournalThermochimica Acta
Volume684
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

Fingerprint

Ionic Liquids
cellulose
Ionic liquids
Cellulose
cleavage
Nanoparticles
catalysts
nanoparticles
Catalysts
liquids
Hydrolysis
hydrolysis
Swelling
swelling
Hazardous Waste
hazardous wastes
Water
Fibers
Crystallite size
fibers

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanoparticles
  • Crystallinity
  • Ionic liquid
  • Regenerate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

Hydrolytic cleavage of glycosidic bonds for cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) production by BmimHSO4 ionic liquid catalyst. / Low, Foo Wah; Samsudin, Nurul Asma; Yusoff, Yulisa; Tan, Xiao Yun; Lai, Chin Wei; Amin, Nowshad; Tiong, Sieh Kiong.

In: Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 684, 178484, 02.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Low, Foo Wah ; Samsudin, Nurul Asma ; Yusoff, Yulisa ; Tan, Xiao Yun ; Lai, Chin Wei ; Amin, Nowshad ; Tiong, Sieh Kiong. / Hydrolytic cleavage of glycosidic bonds for cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) production by BmimHSO4 ionic liquid catalyst. In: Thermochimica Acta. 2020 ; Vol. 684.
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AB - Highly crystalline cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) were synthesized from cotton linters using Brønsted acid-type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (BmimHSO4) ionic liquid via the hydrolysis method. The integral properties and thermal stability of CNPs were evaluated under different concentrations of BmimHSO4 ionic liquid (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt.%). It was discovered that 15 wt% BmimHSO4 ionic liquid produced CNPs with the smallest crystallite size. Furthermore, this association with optimized [HSO4]− anions had the potential to form cellulose fibers during the swelling/hydrolysis process induced by water addition. In contrast, excessive mass loading of 20 wt% and 25 wt% of BmimHSO4 ionic liquid to the Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) resulted in an increase of viscosity, which weakened the mobility of ions in cellulose fibers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results revealed that CNPs’ length and diameter of around 90 nm and 12 nm, respectively, were observed 2 h after the hydrolysis process. The presence of the [sbnd]OH functional group at 3440 cm–1 for regenerated BmimHSO4 sample proved the occurrence of swelling due to water addition and thus addressed the production of synthesized CNPs. Interestingly, the recovery of ionic liquid for reuse purposes reached up to 90% without creating any hazardous waste. These findings are beneficial to the environment and have great prospect towards enhancing sustainability.

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