How many roads must a Malaysian walk down? Mapping the accessibility of radiotherapy facilities in Malaysia

Noorazrul Azmie Yahya, Nur Khalis Sukiman, Nani Adilah Suhaimi, Nor Aniza Azmi, Hanani A. Manan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities may affect the willingness to undergo treatment. We sought to quantify the distance and travel time of Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre and to estimate the megavoltage unit (MV)/million population based on the regions. Materials & methods Data for subdistricts in Malaysia and radiotherapy services were extracted from Department of Statistics Malaysia and Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC). Data from DIRAC were validated by direct communication with centres. Locations of radiotherapy centres, distance and travel time to the nearest radiotherapy were estimated using web mapping service, Google Map. Results The average distance and travel time from Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre were 82.5km and 83.4mins, respectively. The average distance and travel were not homogenous; East Malaysia (228.1km, 236.1mins), Central (14.4km, 20.1mins), East Coast (124.2km, 108.8mins), Northern (42.9km, 42.8mins) and Southern (36.0km, 39.8mins). The MV/million population for the country is 2.47, East Malaysia (1.76), Central (4.19), East Coast (0.54), Northern (2.40), Southern (2.36). About 25% of the population needs to travel >100 km to get to the closest radiotherapy facility. Conclusion On average, Malaysians need to travel far and long to reach radiotherapy facilities. The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities is not equitable. The disparity may be reduced by adding centres in East Malaysia and the East Coast.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0213583
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Radiotherapy
radiotherapy
roads
travel
Travel time
Coastal zones
Directories
Population
coasts
animal communication
statistics
Statistics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

How many roads must a Malaysian walk down? Mapping the accessibility of radiotherapy facilities in Malaysia. / Yahya, Noorazrul Azmie; Sukiman, Nur Khalis; Suhaimi, Nani Adilah; Azmi, Nor Aniza; Manan, Hanani A.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 14, No. 3, e0213583, 01.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f226fa1a6b8a4b98a793d5d2c038e9df,
title = "How many roads must a Malaysian walk down? Mapping the accessibility of radiotherapy facilities in Malaysia",
abstract = "Background The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities may affect the willingness to undergo treatment. We sought to quantify the distance and travel time of Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre and to estimate the megavoltage unit (MV)/million population based on the regions. Materials & methods Data for subdistricts in Malaysia and radiotherapy services were extracted from Department of Statistics Malaysia and Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC). Data from DIRAC were validated by direct communication with centres. Locations of radiotherapy centres, distance and travel time to the nearest radiotherapy were estimated using web mapping service, Google Map. Results The average distance and travel time from Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre were 82.5km and 83.4mins, respectively. The average distance and travel were not homogenous; East Malaysia (228.1km, 236.1mins), Central (14.4km, 20.1mins), East Coast (124.2km, 108.8mins), Northern (42.9km, 42.8mins) and Southern (36.0km, 39.8mins). The MV/million population for the country is 2.47, East Malaysia (1.76), Central (4.19), East Coast (0.54), Northern (2.40), Southern (2.36). About 25{\%} of the population needs to travel >100 km to get to the closest radiotherapy facility. Conclusion On average, Malaysians need to travel far and long to reach radiotherapy facilities. The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities is not equitable. The disparity may be reduced by adding centres in East Malaysia and the East Coast.",
author = "Yahya, {Noorazrul Azmie} and Sukiman, {Nur Khalis} and Suhaimi, {Nani Adilah} and Azmi, {Nor Aniza} and Manan, {Hanani A.}",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0213583",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - How many roads must a Malaysian walk down? Mapping the accessibility of radiotherapy facilities in Malaysia

AU - Yahya, Noorazrul Azmie

AU - Sukiman, Nur Khalis

AU - Suhaimi, Nani Adilah

AU - Azmi, Nor Aniza

AU - Manan, Hanani A.

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Background The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities may affect the willingness to undergo treatment. We sought to quantify the distance and travel time of Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre and to estimate the megavoltage unit (MV)/million population based on the regions. Materials & methods Data for subdistricts in Malaysia and radiotherapy services were extracted from Department of Statistics Malaysia and Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC). Data from DIRAC were validated by direct communication with centres. Locations of radiotherapy centres, distance and travel time to the nearest radiotherapy were estimated using web mapping service, Google Map. Results The average distance and travel time from Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre were 82.5km and 83.4mins, respectively. The average distance and travel were not homogenous; East Malaysia (228.1km, 236.1mins), Central (14.4km, 20.1mins), East Coast (124.2km, 108.8mins), Northern (42.9km, 42.8mins) and Southern (36.0km, 39.8mins). The MV/million population for the country is 2.47, East Malaysia (1.76), Central (4.19), East Coast (0.54), Northern (2.40), Southern (2.36). About 25% of the population needs to travel >100 km to get to the closest radiotherapy facility. Conclusion On average, Malaysians need to travel far and long to reach radiotherapy facilities. The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities is not equitable. The disparity may be reduced by adding centres in East Malaysia and the East Coast.

AB - Background The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities may affect the willingness to undergo treatment. We sought to quantify the distance and travel time of Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre and to estimate the megavoltage unit (MV)/million population based on the regions. Materials & methods Data for subdistricts in Malaysia and radiotherapy services were extracted from Department of Statistics Malaysia and Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC). Data from DIRAC were validated by direct communication with centres. Locations of radiotherapy centres, distance and travel time to the nearest radiotherapy were estimated using web mapping service, Google Map. Results The average distance and travel time from Malaysian population to the closest radiotherapy centre were 82.5km and 83.4mins, respectively. The average distance and travel were not homogenous; East Malaysia (228.1km, 236.1mins), Central (14.4km, 20.1mins), East Coast (124.2km, 108.8mins), Northern (42.9km, 42.8mins) and Southern (36.0km, 39.8mins). The MV/million population for the country is 2.47, East Malaysia (1.76), Central (4.19), East Coast (0.54), Northern (2.40), Southern (2.36). About 25% of the population needs to travel >100 km to get to the closest radiotherapy facility. Conclusion On average, Malaysians need to travel far and long to reach radiotherapy facilities. The accessibility to radiotherapy facilities is not equitable. The disparity may be reduced by adding centres in East Malaysia and the East Coast.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063347464&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063347464&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0213583

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0213583

M3 - Article

C2 - 30897166

AN - SCOPUS:85063347464

VL - 14

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 3

M1 - e0213583

ER -