Household greywater quantity and quality in Sana'a, Yemen

Mohammed Hasan Al-Mughalles, Rakmi Abdul Rahman, Fatihah Suja`, Mastura Mahmud, Nurul `Ain Ab Jalil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The quantity and quality of greywater that produced by household, in capital Sana'a was determined for 13 days. The daily greywater quantity was 259 liter/day and generation ratio was 87 % of total in-house consumed water. The percentages of contribution of each source of greywater were 37 %, 32 %, 18 %, and 13 % for kitchen sink, hand washing basin, bathroom shower, and washing machine, respectively. Physical greywater qualities of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity were 511 mg/l and 619 FAU, respectively. The results show that chemical properties of pH, nitrate (NO 3 -), ammonia as nitrogen (NH4-N), and phosphate (PO 4 -) were 6, 98 mg/l, 11 mg/l, and 16 mg/l, respectively. Biological characteristics of biological oxygen demand (BOD 5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 518 mg/l and 2000 mg/l, respectively. Samples analyses also demonstrated that the faecal coliforms (FC) are 19×10 6 N/100 ml as microbial indicator. Household greywater qualities are not within the guidelines of WHO and FAO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1025-1034
Number of pages10
JournalElectronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering
Volume17 H
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Biochemical oxygen demand
Washing machines
Kitchens
biological characteristics
Chemical oxygen demand
Food and Agricultural Organization
Turbidity
fecal coliform
biochemical oxygen demand
Washing
chemical oxygen demand
Chemical properties
turbidity
chemical property
Ammonia
Nitrates
Phosphates
ammonia
phosphate
nitrate

Keywords

  • Greywater generation ratio
  • Household greywater
  • Percentage of contribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Cite this

Household greywater quantity and quality in Sana'a, Yemen. / Al-Mughalles, Mohammed Hasan; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Suja`, Fatihah; Mahmud, Mastura; Ab Jalil, Nurul `Ain.

In: Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 17 H, 2012, p. 1025-1034.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Al-Mughalles, Mohammed Hasan

AU - Rahman, Rakmi Abdul

AU - Suja`, Fatihah

AU - Mahmud, Mastura

AU - Ab Jalil, Nurul `Ain

PY - 2012

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AB - The quantity and quality of greywater that produced by household, in capital Sana'a was determined for 13 days. The daily greywater quantity was 259 liter/day and generation ratio was 87 % of total in-house consumed water. The percentages of contribution of each source of greywater were 37 %, 32 %, 18 %, and 13 % for kitchen sink, hand washing basin, bathroom shower, and washing machine, respectively. Physical greywater qualities of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity were 511 mg/l and 619 FAU, respectively. The results show that chemical properties of pH, nitrate (NO 3 -), ammonia as nitrogen (NH4-N), and phosphate (PO 4 -) were 6, 98 mg/l, 11 mg/l, and 16 mg/l, respectively. Biological characteristics of biological oxygen demand (BOD 5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 518 mg/l and 2000 mg/l, respectively. Samples analyses also demonstrated that the faecal coliforms (FC) are 19×10 6 N/100 ml as microbial indicator. Household greywater qualities are not within the guidelines of WHO and FAO.

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