High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Geok L. Khor, Winnie S S Chee, Zalilah M. Shariff, Bee Koon Poh, Mohan Arumugam, Jamalludin A. Rahman, Hannah E. Theobald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Methods. A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OH)D], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) of the children were computed. Results: Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5%) while slightly over half (58.0%) had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25%) than in the girls (9.5%) (2 = 22.949; P < .001). Most children had adequate concentrations of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc, folate and vitamin B12. In contrast, 35.3% of the children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations indicative of vitamin D deficiency(37.5 nmol/L) and a further 37.1% had insufficiency concentrations (37.5-50 nmol/L). Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age ( 2 = 5.958; P = .016). Conclusions: This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number95
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Malaysia
Vitamin D
Body Mass Index
Micronutrients
Vitamin D Deficiency
Obesity
Vitamin B 12
Ferritins
Folic Acid
Zinc
Hemoglobins
Serum
Rickets
Growth and Development
Osteoporosis
Fasting
Iron
Cross-Sectional Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. / Khor, Geok L.; Chee, Winnie S S; Shariff, Zalilah M.; Poh, Bee Koon; Arumugam, Mohan; Rahman, Jamalludin A.; Theobald, Hannah E.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, 95, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khor, Geok L. ; Chee, Winnie S S ; Shariff, Zalilah M. ; Poh, Bee Koon ; Arumugam, Mohan ; Rahman, Jamalludin A. ; Theobald, Hannah E. / High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In: BMC Public Health. 2011 ; Vol. 11.
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AU - Khor, Geok L.

AU - Chee, Winnie S S

AU - Shariff, Zalilah M.

AU - Poh, Bee Koon

AU - Arumugam, Mohan

AU - Rahman, Jamalludin A.

AU - Theobald, Hannah E.

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N2 - Background: Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Methods. A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OH)D], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) of the children were computed. Results: Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5%) while slightly over half (58.0%) had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25%) than in the girls (9.5%) (2 = 22.949; P < .001). Most children had adequate concentrations of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc, folate and vitamin B12. In contrast, 35.3% of the children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations indicative of vitamin D deficiency(37.5 nmol/L) and a further 37.1% had insufficiency concentrations (37.5-50 nmol/L). Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age ( 2 = 5.958; P = .016). Conclusions: This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.

AB - Background: Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Methods. A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OH)D], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) of the children were computed. Results: Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5%) while slightly over half (58.0%) had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25%) than in the girls (9.5%) (2 = 22.949; P < .001). Most children had adequate concentrations of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc, folate and vitamin B12. In contrast, 35.3% of the children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations indicative of vitamin D deficiency(37.5 nmol/L) and a further 37.1% had insufficiency concentrations (37.5-50 nmol/L). Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age ( 2 = 5.958; P = .016). Conclusions: This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.

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