High magnetic saturation of undoped and cobalt-doped tin oxide prepared by sol–gel method annealed in air and nitrogen gas

M. H. Abdi, Noor Baa`Yah Ibrahim, H. Baqiah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: High transparent Sn1−xCoxO2 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a simple sol–gel method followed by a spin-coating technique then annealed in air and nitrogen gas. The effect of Co concentration and nitrogen gas on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Sn1−xCoxO2 was investigated using X-ray diffractometer, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Hall Effect measurement system and vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffractometer patterns show that all of the films have good crystallization except some samples that annealed in nitrogen gas have extra peak corresponding to Sn7O(OH)2Cl2. The resistivity of samples annealed in nitrogen gas increased as Co concentration increases; however, the samples annealed in air showed higher resistivity that was impossible to measure. The optical transmittance of films annealed in nitrogen gas increased from 90 to 98%. The band gap obtained was 3.84 and 3.98 eV for pure sample annealed in air and nitrogen gas, respectively and increased as Co concentration increases. Ferromagnetic behavior was obtained from all samples while 10% Co-doped SnO2 annealed in nitrogen had highest saturation magnetization. This study revealed that annealing samples in nitrogen gas improved the physical property of samples. Graphical Abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 24 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Saturation magnetization
Cobalt
Tin oxides
tin oxides
Nitrogen
cobalt
Gases
saturation
nitrogen
air
Air
gases
Diffractometers
diffractometers
X rays
electrical resistivity
Coating techniques
stannic oxide
Opacity
Hall effect

Keywords

  • Annealing in nitrogen gas
  • Band magnetic polaron
  • Co-doped SnO
  • Ferromagnetic behavior
  • High transparency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biomaterials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "High magnetic saturation of undoped and cobalt-doped tin oxide prepared by sol–gel method annealed in air and nitrogen gas",
abstract = "Abstract: High transparent Sn1−xCoxO2 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a simple sol–gel method followed by a spin-coating technique then annealed in air and nitrogen gas. The effect of Co concentration and nitrogen gas on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Sn1−xCoxO2 was investigated using X-ray diffractometer, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Hall Effect measurement system and vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffractometer patterns show that all of the films have good crystallization except some samples that annealed in nitrogen gas have extra peak corresponding to Sn7O(OH)2Cl2. The resistivity of samples annealed in nitrogen gas increased as Co concentration increases; however, the samples annealed in air showed higher resistivity that was impossible to measure. The optical transmittance of films annealed in nitrogen gas increased from 90 to 98{\%}. The band gap obtained was 3.84 and 3.98 eV for pure sample annealed in air and nitrogen gas, respectively and increased as Co concentration increases. Ferromagnetic behavior was obtained from all samples while 10{\%} Co-doped SnO2 annealed in nitrogen had highest saturation magnetization. This study revealed that annealing samples in nitrogen gas improved the physical property of samples. Graphical Abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]",
keywords = "Annealing in nitrogen gas, Band magnetic polaron, Co-doped SnO, Ferromagnetic behavior, High transparency",
author = "Abdi, {M. H.} and Ibrahim, {Noor Baa`Yah} and H. Baqiah",
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T1 - High magnetic saturation of undoped and cobalt-doped tin oxide prepared by sol–gel method annealed in air and nitrogen gas

AU - Abdi, M. H.

AU - Ibrahim, Noor Baa`Yah

AU - Baqiah, H.

PY - 2017/1/24

Y1 - 2017/1/24

N2 - Abstract: High transparent Sn1−xCoxO2 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a simple sol–gel method followed by a spin-coating technique then annealed in air and nitrogen gas. The effect of Co concentration and nitrogen gas on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Sn1−xCoxO2 was investigated using X-ray diffractometer, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Hall Effect measurement system and vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffractometer patterns show that all of the films have good crystallization except some samples that annealed in nitrogen gas have extra peak corresponding to Sn7O(OH)2Cl2. The resistivity of samples annealed in nitrogen gas increased as Co concentration increases; however, the samples annealed in air showed higher resistivity that was impossible to measure. The optical transmittance of films annealed in nitrogen gas increased from 90 to 98%. The band gap obtained was 3.84 and 3.98 eV for pure sample annealed in air and nitrogen gas, respectively and increased as Co concentration increases. Ferromagnetic behavior was obtained from all samples while 10% Co-doped SnO2 annealed in nitrogen had highest saturation magnetization. This study revealed that annealing samples in nitrogen gas improved the physical property of samples. Graphical Abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

AB - Abstract: High transparent Sn1−xCoxO2 (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a simple sol–gel method followed by a spin-coating technique then annealed in air and nitrogen gas. The effect of Co concentration and nitrogen gas on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Sn1−xCoxO2 was investigated using X-ray diffractometer, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Hall Effect measurement system and vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffractometer patterns show that all of the films have good crystallization except some samples that annealed in nitrogen gas have extra peak corresponding to Sn7O(OH)2Cl2. The resistivity of samples annealed in nitrogen gas increased as Co concentration increases; however, the samples annealed in air showed higher resistivity that was impossible to measure. The optical transmittance of films annealed in nitrogen gas increased from 90 to 98%. The band gap obtained was 3.84 and 3.98 eV for pure sample annealed in air and nitrogen gas, respectively and increased as Co concentration increases. Ferromagnetic behavior was obtained from all samples while 10% Co-doped SnO2 annealed in nitrogen had highest saturation magnetization. This study revealed that annealing samples in nitrogen gas improved the physical property of samples. Graphical Abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

KW - Annealing in nitrogen gas

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KW - Ferromagnetic behavior

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