Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway

Kongkea Phan, Suthipong Sthiannopkao, Kyoung Woong Kim, Ming Hung Wong, Vibol Sao, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed Yasin, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid Syed Junid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 μg L-1 and Fe > 300 μg L-1; 52.17% had Mn > 400 μg L-1 and 73.91% found Ba > 700 μg L-1. In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L-1 and 25% had Mn > 400 μg L-1, whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L-1. A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (Ash) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (Asw) (rs (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (rs (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5777-5788
Number of pages12
JournalWater Research
Volume44
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Health risks
drinking
Arsenic
Risk assessment
health risk
Groundwater
arsenic
risk assessment
groundwater
Catchments
river basin
Rivers
hair
province
health impact
well water
Trace elements
cancer
Health
trace element

Keywords

  • Arsenic
  • Cambodia
  • Carcinogenic effect
  • Groundwater
  • Non-carcinogenic effect
  • Scalp hair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Ecological Modelling

Cite this

Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway. / Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung Woong; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid.

In: Water Research, Vol. 44, No. 19, 11.2010, p. 5777-5788.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phan, K, Sthiannopkao, S, Kim, KW, Wong, MH, Sao, V, Hashim, JH, Mohamed Yasin, MS & Syed Junid, SMA-J 2010, 'Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway', Water Research, vol. 44, no. 19, pp. 5777-5788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.021
Phan, Kongkea ; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong ; Kim, Kyoung Woong ; Wong, Ming Hung ; Sao, Vibol ; Hashim, Jamal Hisham ; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh ; Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid. / Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway. In: Water Research. 2010 ; Vol. 44, No. 19. pp. 5777-5788.
@article{919b77fcd261439ab636a0d01c4187d6,
title = "Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway",
abstract = "In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100{\%} detected As > 50 μg L-1 and Fe > 300 μg L-1; 52.17{\%} had Mn > 400 μg L-1 and 73.91{\%} found Ba > 700 μg L-1. In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25{\%} of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L-1 and 25{\%} had Mn > 400 μg L-1, whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L-1. A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65{\%} of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48{\%} of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71{\%} were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (Ash) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (Asw) (rs (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (rs (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken.",
keywords = "Arsenic, Cambodia, Carcinogenic effect, Groundwater, Non-carcinogenic effect, Scalp hair",
author = "Kongkea Phan and Suthipong Sthiannopkao and Kim, {Kyoung Woong} and Wong, {Ming Hung} and Vibol Sao and Hashim, {Jamal Hisham} and {Mohamed Yasin}, {Mohamed Salleh} and {Syed Junid}, {Syed Mohamed Al-Junid}",
year = "2010",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.021",
language = "English",
volume = "44",
pages = "5777--5788",
journal = "Water Research",
issn = "0043-1354",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "19",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway

AU - Phan, Kongkea

AU - Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

AU - Kim, Kyoung Woong

AU - Wong, Ming Hung

AU - Sao, Vibol

AU - Hashim, Jamal Hisham

AU - Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh

AU - Syed Junid, Syed Mohamed Al-Junid

PY - 2010/11

Y1 - 2010/11

N2 - In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 μg L-1 and Fe > 300 μg L-1; 52.17% had Mn > 400 μg L-1 and 73.91% found Ba > 700 μg L-1. In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L-1 and 25% had Mn > 400 μg L-1, whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L-1. A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (Ash) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (Asw) (rs (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (rs (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken.

AB - In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 μg L-1 and Fe > 300 μg L-1; 52.17% had Mn > 400 μg L-1 and 73.91% found Ba > 700 μg L-1. In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L-1 and 25% had Mn > 400 μg L-1, whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L-1. A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (Ash) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (Asw) (rs (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (rs (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken.

KW - Arsenic

KW - Cambodia

KW - Carcinogenic effect

KW - Groundwater

KW - Non-carcinogenic effect

KW - Scalp hair

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78649458771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78649458771&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.021

DO - 10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.021

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 5777

EP - 5788

JO - Water Research

JF - Water Research

SN - 0043-1354

IS - 19

ER -