Hardness and microstructure of carbon pellets from self-adhesive pyropolymer prepared from acid and alkaline-treated oil palm bunch

Mohamad Deraman, Ramli Omar, Sarani Zakaria, Meor Zainal Meor Talib, I. R. Mustapa, Muhammad Azmi Abdul Hamid, A. A. Aziz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a natural polymeric material from the palm oil tree, is a potential precursor for making carbon for advanced materials applications because of its continuous generation in large quantities as a low cost by-product of the palm oil mill; annual production of EFB in Malaysia is approximately 2 million tonnes. Powders of natural pyropolymer having self-adhesion property, NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3, were prepared by precarbonizing the EFB, FEB treated with acid (1% HCl), and alkaline (1% NaOH) respectively. Green bodies of carbon pellets prepared from the NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were carbonized up to 1000°C using a multistep heating profile. Hardness of the carbonized pellets prepared from NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were 1/8, 2/5, and 1/2 of that of the reference sample (334 HV) respectively. This implied that, although the treatment improved the sample hardness it did not significantly increase the intermolecular forces or the number of inter-ribbon cross-links in the samples during carbonization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalAdvances in Polymer Technology
Volume23
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2004

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Fruits
Adhesives
Carbon
Hardness
Microstructure
Acids
Carbonization
Powders
Byproducts
Adhesion
Heating
Polymers
Costs
palm oil

Keywords

  • Carbon
  • Natural products
  • Pyrolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Hardness and microstructure of carbon pellets from self-adhesive pyropolymer prepared from acid and alkaline-treated oil palm bunch. / Deraman, Mohamad; Omar, Ramli; Zakaria, Sarani; Meor Talib, Meor Zainal; Mustapa, I. R.; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Aziz, A. A.

In: Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 03.2004, p. 51-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{010fbabf57a44e90bdc54845f0afb352,
title = "Hardness and microstructure of carbon pellets from self-adhesive pyropolymer prepared from acid and alkaline-treated oil palm bunch",
abstract = "Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a natural polymeric material from the palm oil tree, is a potential precursor for making carbon for advanced materials applications because of its continuous generation in large quantities as a low cost by-product of the palm oil mill; annual production of EFB in Malaysia is approximately 2 million tonnes. Powders of natural pyropolymer having self-adhesion property, NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3, were prepared by precarbonizing the EFB, FEB treated with acid (1{\%} HCl), and alkaline (1{\%} NaOH) respectively. Green bodies of carbon pellets prepared from the NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were carbonized up to 1000°C using a multistep heating profile. Hardness of the carbonized pellets prepared from NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were 1/8, 2/5, and 1/2 of that of the reference sample (334 HV) respectively. This implied that, although the treatment improved the sample hardness it did not significantly increase the intermolecular forces or the number of inter-ribbon cross-links in the samples during carbonization.",
keywords = "Carbon, Natural products, Pyrolysis",
author = "Mohamad Deraman and Ramli Omar and Sarani Zakaria and {Meor Talib}, {Meor Zainal} and Mustapa, {I. R.} and {Abdul Hamid}, {Muhammad Azmi} and Aziz, {A. A.}",
year = "2004",
month = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "51--58",
journal = "Advances in Polymer Technology",
issn = "0730-6679",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hardness and microstructure of carbon pellets from self-adhesive pyropolymer prepared from acid and alkaline-treated oil palm bunch

AU - Deraman, Mohamad

AU - Omar, Ramli

AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Meor Talib, Meor Zainal

AU - Mustapa, I. R.

AU - Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi

AU - Aziz, A. A.

PY - 2004/3

Y1 - 2004/3

N2 - Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a natural polymeric material from the palm oil tree, is a potential precursor for making carbon for advanced materials applications because of its continuous generation in large quantities as a low cost by-product of the palm oil mill; annual production of EFB in Malaysia is approximately 2 million tonnes. Powders of natural pyropolymer having self-adhesion property, NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3, were prepared by precarbonizing the EFB, FEB treated with acid (1% HCl), and alkaline (1% NaOH) respectively. Green bodies of carbon pellets prepared from the NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were carbonized up to 1000°C using a multistep heating profile. Hardness of the carbonized pellets prepared from NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were 1/8, 2/5, and 1/2 of that of the reference sample (334 HV) respectively. This implied that, although the treatment improved the sample hardness it did not significantly increase the intermolecular forces or the number of inter-ribbon cross-links in the samples during carbonization.

AB - Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a natural polymeric material from the palm oil tree, is a potential precursor for making carbon for advanced materials applications because of its continuous generation in large quantities as a low cost by-product of the palm oil mill; annual production of EFB in Malaysia is approximately 2 million tonnes. Powders of natural pyropolymer having self-adhesion property, NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3, were prepared by precarbonizing the EFB, FEB treated with acid (1% HCl), and alkaline (1% NaOH) respectively. Green bodies of carbon pellets prepared from the NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were carbonized up to 1000°C using a multistep heating profile. Hardness of the carbonized pellets prepared from NPP1, NPP2, and NPP3 were 1/8, 2/5, and 1/2 of that of the reference sample (334 HV) respectively. This implied that, although the treatment improved the sample hardness it did not significantly increase the intermolecular forces or the number of inter-ribbon cross-links in the samples during carbonization.

KW - Carbon

KW - Natural products

KW - Pyrolysis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1342347373&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1342347373&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 51

EP - 58

JO - Advances in Polymer Technology

JF - Advances in Polymer Technology

SN - 0730-6679

IS - 1

ER -