Green wireless network optimisation strategies within smart grid environments for Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks in Malaysia

Mohammed H. Alsharif, Rosdiadee Nordin, Mahamod Ismail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated the possibility of integrating a renewable energy system with an existing energy source (electricity grid) to supply mobile base stations in the on-grid sites of Malaysia and minimise the annual Operational expenditure (OPEX). Based on the available renewable energy resources in Malaysia, three options for this goal were examined: (i) photovoltaic/electric grid, (ii) wind energy/electric grid, and (iii) photovoltaic/wind energy/electric grid. System simulations were performed with the software HOMER, using wind speed, solar irradiance, load demand, component costs and technical specifications as well as various minimum renewable fraction (MRF) values. Three key aspects were analysed: (i) energy yields, (ii) economics, and (iii) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The findings herein demonstrate that the hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy/electric grid power system delivered the highest energy to the load of the renewable energy system (48.91%), which reduces both the operating costs and pollution rate. Whereas, cost of the project is large compared with the photovoltaic/electric grid power system. However, large benefits for mobile operators in terms of OPEX reduction can be achieved. The average annual OPEX savings of the hybrid wind energy system was the lowest at 30%, whereas that of the hybrid solar system was 35% and that of the hybrid photovoltaic/wind energy/electric grid was as high as 39%. •Investigated the possibility of integrating a photovoltaic/electric grid.•Investigated the possibility of integrating a wind energy/electric grid.•Investigated the possibility of integrating a photovoltaic/wind energy/electric grid.•System simulations were performed with the software HOMER.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-170
Number of pages14
JournalRenewable Energy
Volume85
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015

Fingerprint

Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Wind power
Wireless networks
Renewable energy resources
Solar system
Gas emissions
Operating costs
Greenhouse gases
Base stations
Costs
Pollution
Electricity
Specifications
Economics

Keywords

  • Cellular networks
  • Energy efficiency
  • HOMER
  • OPEX
  • Renewable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Cite this

Green wireless network optimisation strategies within smart grid environments for Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks in Malaysia. / Alsharif, Mohammed H.; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod.

In: Renewable Energy, Vol. 85, 01.06.2015, p. 157-170.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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