GPS patch antenna performance by modification of Zn(1-x)Ca xAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics

Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal, Huda Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Zulfakar, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Badariah Bais, Sahbudin Shaari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study reports the characterization, fabrication, and performance of global positioning systems (GPS) patch antennas as a function of calcium (Ca) concentration and dielectric constant (ε r ). Zn (1-x)CaxAl2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30) thin films were prepared through a sol-gel method. The effects of added Ca on the nanostructures and dielectric properties of ZnAl 2O4 ceramics were investigated. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size, grain size, and surface morphology, thereby increasing the density and dielectric constant. As the Ca content increased, the ε r values linearly increased. However, the Q u values decreased (at x = 0.25 to x = 0.25) after achieving the optimum values at x = 0.20. Finally, GPS patch antennas were successfully fabricated using the Zn(1-x)CaxAl2O4 material. The patch antenna sizes decreased as ε r increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 8.52) to 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 10.16). The performance (return loss analysis) and operating frequencies of the GPS patch antennas were measured using the PNA series network analyzer. Results show that the patch antenna resonates at frequency of 1.570 GHz and produces a return loss bandwidth between -16.6 and -27.5 dB. The optimal performance of GPS patch antenna with ε r ≈ 9.95, Q u ≈ 6,186, and return loss = -27.5 dB was obtained from specimen using Zn0.80Ca0.20Al2O4 (x = 0.20) ceramics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)477-489
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
Volume71
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

patch antennas
Global Positioning System
Microstrip antennas
Global positioning system
calcium
Calcium
Microwaves
ceramics
microwaves
Permittivity
permittivity
Electric network analyzers
Crystallite size
Dielectric properties
Sol-gel process
Surface morphology
dielectric properties
Nanostructures
analyzers
grain size

Keywords

  • Dielectric properties
  • GPS antennas
  • Nanostructures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

GPS patch antenna performance by modification of Zn(1-x)Ca xAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics. / Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan; Abdullah, Huda; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Bais, Badariah; Shaari, Sahbudin.

In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 71, No. 3, 2014, p. 477-489.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0ec7b81ce24b4e11b289c991c70755d5,
title = "GPS patch antenna performance by modification of Zn(1-x)Ca xAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics",
abstract = "This study reports the characterization, fabrication, and performance of global positioning systems (GPS) patch antennas as a function of calcium (Ca) concentration and dielectric constant (ε r ). Zn (1-x)CaxAl2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30) thin films were prepared through a sol-gel method. The effects of added Ca on the nanostructures and dielectric properties of ZnAl 2O4 ceramics were investigated. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size, grain size, and surface morphology, thereby increasing the density and dielectric constant. As the Ca content increased, the ε r values linearly increased. However, the Q u values decreased (at x = 0.25 to x = 0.25) after achieving the optimum values at x = 0.20. Finally, GPS patch antennas were successfully fabricated using the Zn(1-x)CaxAl2O4 material. The patch antenna sizes decreased as ε r increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 8.52) to 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 10.16). The performance (return loss analysis) and operating frequencies of the GPS patch antennas were measured using the PNA series network analyzer. Results show that the patch antenna resonates at frequency of 1.570 GHz and produces a return loss bandwidth between -16.6 and -27.5 dB. The optimal performance of GPS patch antenna with ε r ≈ 9.95, Q u ≈ 6,186, and return loss = -27.5 dB was obtained from specimen using Zn0.80Ca0.20Al2O4 (x = 0.20) ceramics.",
keywords = "Dielectric properties, GPS antennas, Nanostructures",
author = "Jalal, {Wan Nasarudin Wan} and Huda Abdullah and Zulfakar, {Mohd Syafiq} and Islam, {Mohammad Tariqul} and Badariah Bais and Sahbudin Shaari",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s10971-014-3397-2",
language = "English",
volume = "71",
pages = "477--489",
journal = "Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology",
issn = "0928-0707",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - GPS patch antenna performance by modification of Zn(1-x)Ca xAl2O4-based microwave dielectric ceramics

AU - Jalal, Wan Nasarudin Wan

AU - Abdullah, Huda

AU - Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq

AU - Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

AU - Bais, Badariah

AU - Shaari, Sahbudin

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This study reports the characterization, fabrication, and performance of global positioning systems (GPS) patch antennas as a function of calcium (Ca) concentration and dielectric constant (ε r ). Zn (1-x)CaxAl2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30) thin films were prepared through a sol-gel method. The effects of added Ca on the nanostructures and dielectric properties of ZnAl 2O4 ceramics were investigated. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size, grain size, and surface morphology, thereby increasing the density and dielectric constant. As the Ca content increased, the ε r values linearly increased. However, the Q u values decreased (at x = 0.25 to x = 0.25) after achieving the optimum values at x = 0.20. Finally, GPS patch antennas were successfully fabricated using the Zn(1-x)CaxAl2O4 material. The patch antenna sizes decreased as ε r increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 8.52) to 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 10.16). The performance (return loss analysis) and operating frequencies of the GPS patch antennas were measured using the PNA series network analyzer. Results show that the patch antenna resonates at frequency of 1.570 GHz and produces a return loss bandwidth between -16.6 and -27.5 dB. The optimal performance of GPS patch antenna with ε r ≈ 9.95, Q u ≈ 6,186, and return loss = -27.5 dB was obtained from specimen using Zn0.80Ca0.20Al2O4 (x = 0.20) ceramics.

AB - This study reports the characterization, fabrication, and performance of global positioning systems (GPS) patch antennas as a function of calcium (Ca) concentration and dielectric constant (ε r ). Zn (1-x)CaxAl2O4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30) thin films were prepared through a sol-gel method. The effects of added Ca on the nanostructures and dielectric properties of ZnAl 2O4 ceramics were investigated. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size, grain size, and surface morphology, thereby increasing the density and dielectric constant. As the Ca content increased, the ε r values linearly increased. However, the Q u values decreased (at x = 0.25 to x = 0.25) after achieving the optimum values at x = 0.20. Finally, GPS patch antennas were successfully fabricated using the Zn(1-x)CaxAl2O4 material. The patch antenna sizes decreased as ε r increased from 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 8.52) to 2.88 × 4.37 cm (ε r ≈ 10.16). The performance (return loss analysis) and operating frequencies of the GPS patch antennas were measured using the PNA series network analyzer. Results show that the patch antenna resonates at frequency of 1.570 GHz and produces a return loss bandwidth between -16.6 and -27.5 dB. The optimal performance of GPS patch antenna with ε r ≈ 9.95, Q u ≈ 6,186, and return loss = -27.5 dB was obtained from specimen using Zn0.80Ca0.20Al2O4 (x = 0.20) ceramics.

KW - Dielectric properties

KW - GPS antennas

KW - Nanostructures

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84906060689&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84906060689&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10971-014-3397-2

DO - 10.1007/s10971-014-3397-2

M3 - Article

VL - 71

SP - 477

EP - 489

JO - Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

JF - Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

SN - 0928-0707

IS - 3

ER -