Gardnerella vaginalis in perinatology: An overview of the clinicopathological correlation

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Abstract

Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) is a facultatively anaerobic gram-variable bacillus and is the major organism involved in bacterial vaginosis. GV-associated bacterial vaginosis has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes include preterm parturition and subclinical chorioamnionitis. Inflammatory response induced by GV presents paediatric problems as well. Studies had shown that increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines include TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 following fetal inflammatory response syndrome secondary to GV-induced intrauterine infection may result in the development of periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the infected fetus. There is increasing evidence that GV-associated BV infection serves as a risk factor for long-term neurological complications, such as cerebral palsy and learning disability. GV is fastidious and could elude conventional detection methods such as bacterial cultures. With current more sophisticated molecular biology detection methods, its role and pathogenic effects have been shown to have a greater impact on intrauterine inflammation and fetal/neonatal infection. This review gives an overview on the characteristics of GV and its virulence properties. Its detrimental role in causing unfavourable GV-related perinatal outcomes, with emphasis on the possible mechanistic pathways is discussed. The discovery of disease mechanisms allows the building of a strong platform where further research on innovative therapies can be based on, for instance, an anti-TLR monoclonal antibody as therapeutic agent to halt inflammation-precipitate adverse perinatal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-286
Number of pages20
JournalThe Malaysian journal of pathology
Volume40
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

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Perinatology
Gardnerella vaginalis
Bacterial Vaginosis
Infection
Periventricular Leukomalacia
Inflammation
Chorioamnionitis
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Investigational Therapies
Learning Disorders
Cerebral Palsy
Pregnancy Outcome
Interleukin-1
Bacillus
Virulence
Molecular Biology
Interleukin-6
Fetus
Monoclonal Antibodies
Parturition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Gardnerella vaginalis in perinatology: An overview of the clinicopathological correlation",
abstract = "Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) is a facultatively anaerobic gram-variable bacillus and is the major organism involved in bacterial vaginosis. GV-associated bacterial vaginosis has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes include preterm parturition and subclinical chorioamnionitis. Inflammatory response induced by GV presents paediatric problems as well. Studies had shown that increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines include TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 following fetal inflammatory response syndrome secondary to GV-induced intrauterine infection may result in the development of periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the infected fetus. There is increasing evidence that GV-associated BV infection serves as a risk factor for long-term neurological complications, such as cerebral palsy and learning disability. GV is fastidious and could elude conventional detection methods such as bacterial cultures. With current more sophisticated molecular biology detection methods, its role and pathogenic effects have been shown to have a greater impact on intrauterine inflammation and fetal/neonatal infection. This review gives an overview on the characteristics of GV and its virulence properties. Its detrimental role in causing unfavourable GV-related perinatal outcomes, with emphasis on the possible mechanistic pathways is discussed. The discovery of disease mechanisms allows the building of a strong platform where further research on innovative therapies can be based on, for instance, an anti-TLR monoclonal antibody as therapeutic agent to halt inflammation-precipitate adverse perinatal outcomes.",
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AU - Fook Choe, Cheah

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