Fundamental frequency and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in Malaysian Malay children between 7 and 12 years old

Hua Nong Ting, See Yan Chia, Hany Hazfiza Manap, Ai Hui Ho, Kian Yean Tiu, Badrulzaman Abdul Hamid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F0) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Methods: Praat software (Boersma and Weenink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used to analyze the F0 and perturbation measures of the sustained vowels. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the significant differences in F0 and perturbation measures across the vowels, sex, and age groups. Results: The mean F0 of Malaysian Malay male and female children were reported at 240 ± 34.88 and 254.48 ± 23.35 Hz, respectively. The jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) of Malaysian male children were reported at 0.43 ± 0.26%, 0.25 ± 0.16%, 0.26 ± 0.15%, 2.48 ± 1.61%, and 1.75 ± 1.04%, respectively. As for female children, the Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, Shim, and APQ11 were reported at 0.42 ± 0.22%, 0.25 ± 0.14%, 0.25 ± 0.13%, 2.47 ± 1.53%, and 1.75 ± 1.10%, respectively. Conclusions: No significant differences in F0 were reported across the Malay vowels for both males and females. Malay females had significantly higher F0 than that in Malay males at the age of 8, 10, and 12 years. Malaysian Malay children underwent the nonsystematic decrement in F0 across the age groups. Significant differences in F0 were found across the age groups. Significant differences in perturbation measures were observed across the vowels in certain age groups of Malay males and females. Generally, no significant differences in perturbation measures between the sex were observed in all the age groups and vowels. No significant differences in all the perturbation measures across the age groups were reported in both Malaysian Malay male and female children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)425-430
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Voice
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

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Keywords

  • Fundamental frequency
  • Malay children
  • Normal voice
  • Perturbation measures
  • Sustained vowels
  • Voice change

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Speech and Hearing
  • LPN and LVN

Cite this

Fundamental frequency and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in Malaysian Malay children between 7 and 12 years old. / Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Manap, Hany Hazfiza; Ho, Ai Hui; Tiu, Kian Yean; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman.

In: Journal of Voice, Vol. 26, No. 4, 07.2012, p. 425-430.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ting, Hua Nong ; Chia, See Yan ; Manap, Hany Hazfiza ; Ho, Ai Hui ; Tiu, Kian Yean ; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman. / Fundamental frequency and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in Malaysian Malay children between 7 and 12 years old. In: Journal of Voice. 2012 ; Vol. 26, No. 4. pp. 425-430.
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abstract = "Objective: The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F0) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Methods: Praat software (Boersma and Weenink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used to analyze the F0 and perturbation measures of the sustained vowels. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the significant differences in F0 and perturbation measures across the vowels, sex, and age groups. Results: The mean F0 of Malaysian Malay male and female children were reported at 240 ± 34.88 and 254.48 ± 23.35 Hz, respectively. The jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) of Malaysian male children were reported at 0.43 ± 0.26{\%}, 0.25 ± 0.16{\%}, 0.26 ± 0.15{\%}, 2.48 ± 1.61{\%}, and 1.75 ± 1.04{\%}, respectively. As for female children, the Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, Shim, and APQ11 were reported at 0.42 ± 0.22{\%}, 0.25 ± 0.14{\%}, 0.25 ± 0.13{\%}, 2.47 ± 1.53{\%}, and 1.75 ± 1.10{\%}, respectively. Conclusions: No significant differences in F0 were reported across the Malay vowels for both males and females. Malay females had significantly higher F0 than that in Malay males at the age of 8, 10, and 12 years. Malaysian Malay children underwent the nonsystematic decrement in F0 across the age groups. Significant differences in F0 were found across the age groups. Significant differences in perturbation measures were observed across the vowels in certain age groups of Malay males and females. Generally, no significant differences in perturbation measures between the sex were observed in all the age groups and vowels. No significant differences in all the perturbation measures across the age groups were reported in both Malaysian Malay male and female children.",
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AU - Tiu, Kian Yean

AU - Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

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N2 - Objective: The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F0) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Methods: Praat software (Boersma and Weenink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used to analyze the F0 and perturbation measures of the sustained vowels. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the significant differences in F0 and perturbation measures across the vowels, sex, and age groups. Results: The mean F0 of Malaysian Malay male and female children were reported at 240 ± 34.88 and 254.48 ± 23.35 Hz, respectively. The jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) of Malaysian male children were reported at 0.43 ± 0.26%, 0.25 ± 0.16%, 0.26 ± 0.15%, 2.48 ± 1.61%, and 1.75 ± 1.04%, respectively. As for female children, the Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, Shim, and APQ11 were reported at 0.42 ± 0.22%, 0.25 ± 0.14%, 0.25 ± 0.13%, 2.47 ± 1.53%, and 1.75 ± 1.10%, respectively. Conclusions: No significant differences in F0 were reported across the Malay vowels for both males and females. Malay females had significantly higher F0 than that in Malay males at the age of 8, 10, and 12 years. Malaysian Malay children underwent the nonsystematic decrement in F0 across the age groups. Significant differences in F0 were found across the age groups. Significant differences in perturbation measures were observed across the vowels in certain age groups of Malay males and females. Generally, no significant differences in perturbation measures between the sex were observed in all the age groups and vowels. No significant differences in all the perturbation measures across the age groups were reported in both Malaysian Malay male and female children.

AB - Objective: The study is going to investigate the fundamental frequency (F0) and perturbation measures of sustained vowels in 360 native Malaysian Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Methods: Praat software (Boersma and Weenink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was used to analyze the F0 and perturbation measures of the sustained vowels. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the significant differences in F0 and perturbation measures across the vowels, sex, and age groups. Results: The mean F0 of Malaysian Malay male and female children were reported at 240 ± 34.88 and 254.48 ± 23.35 Hz, respectively. The jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) of Malaysian male children were reported at 0.43 ± 0.26%, 0.25 ± 0.16%, 0.26 ± 0.15%, 2.48 ± 1.61%, and 1.75 ± 1.04%, respectively. As for female children, the Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, Shim, and APQ11 were reported at 0.42 ± 0.22%, 0.25 ± 0.14%, 0.25 ± 0.13%, 2.47 ± 1.53%, and 1.75 ± 1.10%, respectively. Conclusions: No significant differences in F0 were reported across the Malay vowels for both males and females. Malay females had significantly higher F0 than that in Malay males at the age of 8, 10, and 12 years. Malaysian Malay children underwent the nonsystematic decrement in F0 across the age groups. Significant differences in F0 were found across the age groups. Significant differences in perturbation measures were observed across the vowels in certain age groups of Malay males and females. Generally, no significant differences in perturbation measures between the sex were observed in all the age groups and vowels. No significant differences in all the perturbation measures across the age groups were reported in both Malaysian Malay male and female children.

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