Functionalized liquid natural rubber and liquid epoxidized natural rubber: A promising green toughening agent for polyester

Hanieh Kargarzadeh, Ishak Ahmad, Ibrahim Abdullah, Raju Thomas, Alain Dufresne, Sabu Thomas, Aziz Hassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Toughened unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs) were prepared using two different reactive rubbers, namely, liquid natural rubber (LNR) and liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR). The effect of varying amounts of LNR and LENR on the morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of UPR were evaluated. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the probable crosslinking reaction and changes in the functional groups on crosslinking. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy were used to study the morphology of fracture surfaces. Tensile test showed that both the rubber-modified resins (1.5 wt %) improved tensile strength. The viscoelastic properties and thermal stability of the toughened polyesters were evaluated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. A slight reduction in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyester was reported on the addition of both the rubbers. An increment in impact strength and fracture toughness was observed at 1.5 wt % for LNR and 4.5 wt % for LENR-modified UPR. The results showed that both the liquid rubbers improved the mechanical properties of UPR. However, LENR-modified UPR exhibited a more significant improvement in the mechanical properties compared to LNR-modified UPR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41292
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume132
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

Fingerprint

Polyesters
Toughening
Rubber
Polyester resins
Liquids
Crosslinking
Mechanical properties
Impact strength
Field emission
Thermoanalysis
Functional groups
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Thermogravimetric analysis
Fracture toughness
Microscopic examination
Thermodynamic stability
Tensile strength
Thermodynamic properties
Resins

Keywords

  • Biopolymers and renewable polymers
  • Blends
  • Functionalization of polymers
  • Polyesters
  • Properties and characterization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Functionalized liquid natural rubber and liquid epoxidized natural rubber : A promising green toughening agent for polyester. / Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Thomas, Raju; Dufresne, Alain; Thomas, Sabu; Hassan, Aziz.

In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 3, 41292, 01.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kargarzadeh, Hanieh ; Ahmad, Ishak ; Abdullah, Ibrahim ; Thomas, Raju ; Dufresne, Alain ; Thomas, Sabu ; Hassan, Aziz. / Functionalized liquid natural rubber and liquid epoxidized natural rubber : A promising green toughening agent for polyester. In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2015 ; Vol. 132, No. 3.
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