Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study

Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

94 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Findings Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5–9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·74–1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74–1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67–1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53–1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68–1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68–0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95% CI 0·69–0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality. Interpretation Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day). Funding Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2037-2049
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet
Volume390
Issue number10107
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

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Fabaceae
Vegetables
Fruit
Epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Cardiovascular Diseases
Prospective Studies
Mortality
Myocardial Infarction
Middle East
South America
China
Stroke
Southeastern Asia
Far East
North America
South Africa
Proportional Hazards Models
Social Class

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE) : a prospective cohort study. / Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 390, No. 10107, 01.11.2017, p. 2037-2049.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators. / Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE) : a prospective cohort study. In: The Lancet. 2017 ; Vol. 390, No. 10107. pp. 2037-2049.
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title = "Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study",
abstract = "Background The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Findings Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5–9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95{\%} CI 0·74–1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74–1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67–1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53–1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68–1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68–0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95{\%} CI 0·69–0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality. Interpretation Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day). Funding Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).",
author = "{Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators} and Victoria Miller and Andrew Mente and Mahshid Dehghan and Sumathy Rangarajan and Xiaohe Zhang and Sumathi Swaminathan and Gilles Dagenais and Rajeev Gupta and Viswanathan Mohan and Scott Lear and Bangdiwala, {Shrikant I.} and Schutte, {Aletta E.} and Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen and Alvaro Avezum and Yuksel Altuntas and Khalid Yusoff and Ismail, {Noor Hassim} and Nasheeta Peer and Jephat Chifamba and Rafael Diaz and Omar Rahman and Noushin Mohammadifard and Fernando Lana and Katarzyna Zatonska and Andreas Wielgosz and Afzalhussein Yusufali and Romaina Iqbal and Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo and Rasha Khatib and Annika Rosengren and Kutty, {V. Raman} and Wei Li and Jiankang Liu and Xiaoyun Liu and Lu Yin and Koon Teo and Sonia Anand and Salim Yusuf and R. Diaz and A. Orlandini and B. Linetsky and S. Toscanelli and G. Casaccia and Cuneo, {JM Maini} and O. Rahman and R. Yusuf and Azad, {A. K.} and Rabbani, {K. A.} and Cherry, {H. M.} and A. Mannan",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE)

T2 - a prospective cohort study

AU - Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators

AU - Miller, Victoria

AU - Mente, Andrew

AU - Dehghan, Mahshid

AU - Rangarajan, Sumathy

AU - Zhang, Xiaohe

AU - Swaminathan, Sumathi

AU - Dagenais, Gilles

AU - Gupta, Rajeev

AU - Mohan, Viswanathan

AU - Lear, Scott

AU - Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

AU - Schutte, Aletta E.

AU - Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

AU - Avezum, Alvaro

AU - Altuntas, Yuksel

AU - Yusoff, Khalid

AU - Ismail, Noor Hassim

AU - Peer, Nasheeta

AU - Chifamba, Jephat

AU - Diaz, Rafael

AU - Rahman, Omar

AU - Mohammadifard, Noushin

AU - Lana, Fernando

AU - Zatonska, Katarzyna

AU - Wielgosz, Andreas

AU - Yusufali, Afzalhussein

AU - Iqbal, Romaina

AU - Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

AU - Khatib, Rasha

AU - Rosengren, Annika

AU - Kutty, V. Raman

AU - Li, Wei

AU - Liu, Jiankang

AU - Liu, Xiaoyun

AU - Yin, Lu

AU - Teo, Koon

AU - Anand, Sonia

AU - Yusuf, Salim

AU - Diaz, R.

AU - Orlandini, A.

AU - Linetsky, B.

AU - Toscanelli, S.

AU - Casaccia, G.

AU - Cuneo, JM Maini

AU - Rahman, O.

AU - Yusuf, R.

AU - Azad, A. K.

AU - Rabbani, K. A.

AU - Cherry, H. M.

AU - Mannan, A.

PY - 2017/11/1

Y1 - 2017/11/1

N2 - Background The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Findings Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5–9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·74–1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74–1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67–1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53–1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68–1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68–0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95% CI 0·69–0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality. Interpretation Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day). Funding Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

AB - Background The association between intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated extensively in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but little or no data are available from the Middle East, South America, Africa, or south Asia. Methods We did a prospective cohort study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology [PURE] in 135 335 individuals aged 35 to 70 years without cardiovascular disease from 613 communities in 18 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries in seven geographical regions: North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, south Asia, China, southeast Asia, and Africa. We documented their diet using country-specific food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect information about demographic factors, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), lifestyle (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol intake), health history and medication use, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period varied based on the date when recruitment began at each site or country. The main clinical outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (defined as death from cardiovascular causes and non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure), fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal strokes, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Cox frailty models with random effects were used to assess associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Findings Participants were enrolled into the study between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013. For the current analysis, we included all unrefuted outcome events in the PURE study database through March 31, 2017. Overall, combined mean fruit, vegetable and legume intake was 3·91 (SD 2·77) servings per day. During a median 7·4 years (5·5–9·3) of follow-up, 4784 major cardiovascular disease events, 1649 cardiovascular deaths, and 5796 total deaths were documented. Higher total fruit, vegetable, and legume intake was inversely associated with major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality in the models adjusted for age, sex, and centre (random effect). The estimates were substantially attenuated in the multivariable adjusted models for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·74–1·10, ptrend=0·1301), myocardial infarction (0·99, 0·74–1·31; ptrend=0·2033), stroke (0·92, 0·67–1·25; ptrend=0·7092), cardiovascular mortality (0·73, 0·53–1·02; ptrend=0·0568), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·84, 0·68–1·04; ptrend =0·0038), and total mortality (0·81, 0·68–0·96; ptrend<0·0001). The HR for total mortality was lowest for three to four servings per day (0·78, 95% CI 0·69–0·88) compared with the reference group, with no further apparent decrease in HR with higher consumption. When examined separately, fruit intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, and total mortality, while legume intake was inversely associated with non-cardiovascular death and total mortality (in fully adjusted models). For vegetables, raw vegetable intake was strongly associated with a lower risk of total mortality, whereas cooked vegetable intake showed a modest benefit against mortality. Interpretation Higher fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption was associated with a lower risk of non-cardiovascular, and total mortality. Benefits appear to be maximum for both non-cardiovascular mortality and total mortality at three to four servings per day (equivalent to 375–500 g/day). Funding Full funding sources listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

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