Formation, modeling and validation of trihalomethanes (THM) in Malaysian drinking water: A case study in the districts of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia

Md. Pauzi Abdullah, C. H. Yew, Mohamad Salleh Bin Ramli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A modeling procedure that predicts trihalomethane (THM) formation from field sampling at the treatment plant and along its distribution system using Tampin district, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam district, Selangor as sources of data were studied and developed. Using Pearson method of correlation, the organic matter measured as TOC showed a positive correlation with formation of THM (r=0.380,P=0.0001 for Tampin and r=0.478,P=0.0001 for Sabak Bernam). Similar positive correlation was also obtained for pH in both districts with Tampin (r=0.362,P=0.0010) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.215,P=0.0010). Chlorine dosage was also found to have low correlation with formation of THM for the two districts with Tampin (r=0.233,P=0.0230) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.505,P=0.0001). Distance from treatment plant was found to have correlation with formation of THM for Tampin district with r=0.353 and P=0.0010. Other parameters such as turbidity, ammonia, temperature and residue chlorine were found to have no correlation with formation of THM. Linear and non-linear models were developed for these two districts. The results obtained were validated using three different sets of field data obtained from own source and district of Seremban (Pantai and Sg. Terip), Negeri Sembilan. Validation results indicated that there was significant difference in the predictive and determined values of THM when two sets of data from districts of Seremban were used with an exception of field data of Sg. Terip for non-linear model developed for district of Tampin. It was found that a non-linear model is slightly better than linear model in terms of percentage prediction errors. The models developed were site specific and the predictive capabilities in the distribution systems vary with different environmental conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4637-4644
Number of pages8
JournalWater Research
Volume37
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2003

Fingerprint

Potable water
drinking water
modeling
Chlorine
distribution system
chlorine
Turbidity
Biological materials
Ammonia
turbidity
Sampling
ammonia
environmental conditions
organic matter
sampling
prediction
temperature
Temperature

Keywords

  • Disinfection by-product
  • Formation
  • Modeling
  • Trihalomethane
  • Validation
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this

Formation, modeling and validation of trihalomethanes (THM) in Malaysian drinking water : A case study in the districts of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia. / Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yew, C. H.; Ramli, Mohamad Salleh Bin.

In: Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 19, 12.2003, p. 4637-4644.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "A modeling procedure that predicts trihalomethane (THM) formation from field sampling at the treatment plant and along its distribution system using Tampin district, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam district, Selangor as sources of data were studied and developed. Using Pearson method of correlation, the organic matter measured as TOC showed a positive correlation with formation of THM (r=0.380,P=0.0001 for Tampin and r=0.478,P=0.0001 for Sabak Bernam). Similar positive correlation was also obtained for pH in both districts with Tampin (r=0.362,P=0.0010) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.215,P=0.0010). Chlorine dosage was also found to have low correlation with formation of THM for the two districts with Tampin (r=0.233,P=0.0230) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.505,P=0.0001). Distance from treatment plant was found to have correlation with formation of THM for Tampin district with r=0.353 and P=0.0010. Other parameters such as turbidity, ammonia, temperature and residue chlorine were found to have no correlation with formation of THM. Linear and non-linear models were developed for these two districts. The results obtained were validated using three different sets of field data obtained from own source and district of Seremban (Pantai and Sg. Terip), Negeri Sembilan. Validation results indicated that there was significant difference in the predictive and determined values of THM when two sets of data from districts of Seremban were used with an exception of field data of Sg. Terip for non-linear model developed for district of Tampin. It was found that a non-linear model is slightly better than linear model in terms of percentage prediction errors. The models developed were site specific and the predictive capabilities in the distribution systems vary with different environmental conditions.",
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AU - Yew, C. H.

AU - Ramli, Mohamad Salleh Bin

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AB - A modeling procedure that predicts trihalomethane (THM) formation from field sampling at the treatment plant and along its distribution system using Tampin district, Negeri Sembilan and Sabak Bernam district, Selangor as sources of data were studied and developed. Using Pearson method of correlation, the organic matter measured as TOC showed a positive correlation with formation of THM (r=0.380,P=0.0001 for Tampin and r=0.478,P=0.0001 for Sabak Bernam). Similar positive correlation was also obtained for pH in both districts with Tampin (r=0.362,P=0.0010) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.215,P=0.0010). Chlorine dosage was also found to have low correlation with formation of THM for the two districts with Tampin (r=0.233,P=0.0230) and Sabak Bernam (r=0.505,P=0.0001). Distance from treatment plant was found to have correlation with formation of THM for Tampin district with r=0.353 and P=0.0010. Other parameters such as turbidity, ammonia, temperature and residue chlorine were found to have no correlation with formation of THM. Linear and non-linear models were developed for these two districts. The results obtained were validated using three different sets of field data obtained from own source and district of Seremban (Pantai and Sg. Terip), Negeri Sembilan. Validation results indicated that there was significant difference in the predictive and determined values of THM when two sets of data from districts of Seremban were used with an exception of field data of Sg. Terip for non-linear model developed for district of Tampin. It was found that a non-linear model is slightly better than linear model in terms of percentage prediction errors. The models developed were site specific and the predictive capabilities in the distribution systems vary with different environmental conditions.

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KW - Validation

KW - Water treatment

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