Flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai River sub-catchment into Lake Chini, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia

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Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai sub-catchment into Lake Chini through the process of erosion. Melai River is one of the seven feeder rivers that contributed to the present water level of Lake Chini. Three properties of soils, such as particle size, organic matter content, and soil hydraulic conductivity and three chemical soil properties, such as available nutrients, dissolved nutrients, and heavy metals, were analyzed and interpreted. Potential soil loss was estimated using the revised universal soil loss equation model. The results show that the soil textures in the study area consist of clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy silt loam. The organic matter content ranges from 3. 40 to 9. 92 %, while the hydraulic conductivity ranges from 5. 2 to 25. 3 cm/h. Mean values of available P, K, and Mg amount was 8. 5 ± 3. 7 μg/g, 24. 5 ± 3. 4 μg/g, and 20. 7 ± 18. 6 μg/g, respectively. The highest concentration of soluble nutrients was SO4 -2 (815. 8 ± 624. 1 μg/g), followed by NO3 --N (295. 5 ± 372. 7 μg/g), NH4 +-N (24. 5 ± 22. 1 μg/g) and PO4 3- (2. 0 ± 0. 8 μg/g). The rainfall erosivity value was 1658. 7 MJ mm/ha/h/year. The soil erodibility and slope factor ranges from 0. 06 to 0. 26 ton h/MJ/mm and 7. 63 to 18. 33, respectively. The rate of soil loss from the Melai sub-catchment in the present condition is very low (0. 0028 ton/ha/year) to low (18. 93 ton/ha/year), and low level flow of nutrients and heavy metals, indicating that the Melai River was not the contaminant source of sediments, nutrients, and heavy metals to the lake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-897
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
Volume68
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Heavy Metals
Catchments
Malaysia
Nutrients
Heavy metals
Lakes
heavy metals
Rivers
heavy metal
catchment
Fluxes
Soils
lakes
rivers
nutrient
lake
nutrients
river
clay
soil

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Melai river sub-catchment
  • Nutrient
  • Soil erosion
  • Soil loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Geology
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Pollution
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Soil Science

Cite this

@article{bd8a91b49f0c4cbda95adc8e12e77e1b,
title = "Flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai River sub-catchment into Lake Chini, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia",
abstract = "This study was carried out to determine the flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai sub-catchment into Lake Chini through the process of erosion. Melai River is one of the seven feeder rivers that contributed to the present water level of Lake Chini. Three properties of soils, such as particle size, organic matter content, and soil hydraulic conductivity and three chemical soil properties, such as available nutrients, dissolved nutrients, and heavy metals, were analyzed and interpreted. Potential soil loss was estimated using the revised universal soil loss equation model. The results show that the soil textures in the study area consist of clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy silt loam. The organic matter content ranges from 3. 40 to 9. 92 {\%}, while the hydraulic conductivity ranges from 5. 2 to 25. 3 cm/h. Mean values of available P, K, and Mg amount was 8. 5 ± 3. 7 μg/g, 24. 5 ± 3. 4 μg/g, and 20. 7 ± 18. 6 μg/g, respectively. The highest concentration of soluble nutrients was SO4 -2 (815. 8 ± 624. 1 μg/g), followed by NO3 --N (295. 5 ± 372. 7 μg/g), NH4 +-N (24. 5 ± 22. 1 μg/g) and PO4 3- (2. 0 ± 0. 8 μg/g). The rainfall erosivity value was 1658. 7 MJ mm/ha/h/year. The soil erodibility and slope factor ranges from 0. 06 to 0. 26 ton h/MJ/mm and 7. 63 to 18. 33, respectively. The rate of soil loss from the Melai sub-catchment in the present condition is very low (0. 0028 ton/ha/year) to low (18. 93 ton/ha/year), and low level flow of nutrients and heavy metals, indicating that the Melai River was not the contaminant source of sediments, nutrients, and heavy metals to the lake.",
keywords = "Heavy metals, Melai river sub-catchment, Nutrient, Soil erosion, Soil loss",
author = "Gasim, {Muhd Barzani} and {Abd Rahim}, {Sahibin @ Sahibini} and Toriman, {Mohd. Ekhwan} and Idris, {Wan Mohd Razi} and Tukimat Lihan and {Ali Rahman}, Zulfahmi and Azman Hashim and Norhadilla Hadib",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1007/s12665-012-1919-1",
language = "English",
volume = "68",
pages = "889--897",
journal = "Environmental Earth Sciences",
issn = "1866-6280",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai River sub-catchment into Lake Chini, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia

AU - Gasim, Muhd Barzani

AU - Abd Rahim, Sahibin @ Sahibini

AU - Toriman, Mohd. Ekhwan

AU - Idris, Wan Mohd Razi

AU - Lihan, Tukimat

AU - Ali Rahman, Zulfahmi

AU - Hashim, Azman

AU - Hadib, Norhadilla

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - This study was carried out to determine the flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai sub-catchment into Lake Chini through the process of erosion. Melai River is one of the seven feeder rivers that contributed to the present water level of Lake Chini. Three properties of soils, such as particle size, organic matter content, and soil hydraulic conductivity and three chemical soil properties, such as available nutrients, dissolved nutrients, and heavy metals, were analyzed and interpreted. Potential soil loss was estimated using the revised universal soil loss equation model. The results show that the soil textures in the study area consist of clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy silt loam. The organic matter content ranges from 3. 40 to 9. 92 %, while the hydraulic conductivity ranges from 5. 2 to 25. 3 cm/h. Mean values of available P, K, and Mg amount was 8. 5 ± 3. 7 μg/g, 24. 5 ± 3. 4 μg/g, and 20. 7 ± 18. 6 μg/g, respectively. The highest concentration of soluble nutrients was SO4 -2 (815. 8 ± 624. 1 μg/g), followed by NO3 --N (295. 5 ± 372. 7 μg/g), NH4 +-N (24. 5 ± 22. 1 μg/g) and PO4 3- (2. 0 ± 0. 8 μg/g). The rainfall erosivity value was 1658. 7 MJ mm/ha/h/year. The soil erodibility and slope factor ranges from 0. 06 to 0. 26 ton h/MJ/mm and 7. 63 to 18. 33, respectively. The rate of soil loss from the Melai sub-catchment in the present condition is very low (0. 0028 ton/ha/year) to low (18. 93 ton/ha/year), and low level flow of nutrients and heavy metals, indicating that the Melai River was not the contaminant source of sediments, nutrients, and heavy metals to the lake.

AB - This study was carried out to determine the flux of nutrients and heavy metals from the Melai sub-catchment into Lake Chini through the process of erosion. Melai River is one of the seven feeder rivers that contributed to the present water level of Lake Chini. Three properties of soils, such as particle size, organic matter content, and soil hydraulic conductivity and three chemical soil properties, such as available nutrients, dissolved nutrients, and heavy metals, were analyzed and interpreted. Potential soil loss was estimated using the revised universal soil loss equation model. The results show that the soil textures in the study area consist of clay, silty clay, clay loam, and sandy silt loam. The organic matter content ranges from 3. 40 to 9. 92 %, while the hydraulic conductivity ranges from 5. 2 to 25. 3 cm/h. Mean values of available P, K, and Mg amount was 8. 5 ± 3. 7 μg/g, 24. 5 ± 3. 4 μg/g, and 20. 7 ± 18. 6 μg/g, respectively. The highest concentration of soluble nutrients was SO4 -2 (815. 8 ± 624. 1 μg/g), followed by NO3 --N (295. 5 ± 372. 7 μg/g), NH4 +-N (24. 5 ± 22. 1 μg/g) and PO4 3- (2. 0 ± 0. 8 μg/g). The rainfall erosivity value was 1658. 7 MJ mm/ha/h/year. The soil erodibility and slope factor ranges from 0. 06 to 0. 26 ton h/MJ/mm and 7. 63 to 18. 33, respectively. The rate of soil loss from the Melai sub-catchment in the present condition is very low (0. 0028 ton/ha/year) to low (18. 93 ton/ha/year), and low level flow of nutrients and heavy metals, indicating that the Melai River was not the contaminant source of sediments, nutrients, and heavy metals to the lake.

KW - Heavy metals

KW - Melai river sub-catchment

KW - Nutrient

KW - Soil erosion

KW - Soil loss

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U2 - 10.1007/s12665-012-1919-1

DO - 10.1007/s12665-012-1919-1

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EP - 897

JO - Environmental Earth Sciences

JF - Environmental Earth Sciences

SN - 1866-6280

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