Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment

Monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

Firoz Khan, Mohd Talib Latif, W. H. Saw, N. Amil, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Mazrura Sahani, N. M. Tahir, J. X. Chung

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Abstract

The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24gh basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48g% of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24gh PM2.5 guideline but only 19g% of the samples exceeded 24gh US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42g', NO3g', NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55g% of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35g%), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11g%), sea salt (SS) (7g%), and trace elements (TE) (2g%). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31g%) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20g%), coal burning (19g%), nitrate aerosol (17g%), and mineral/road dust (13g%). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass originating from the mineral/road dust source. The main carcinogenic heavy metal of concern to health at the current location was As; the other heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) did not pose a significant cancer risk in PM2.5 mass concentration. Overall, the associated lifetime cancer risk posed by the exposure of hazardous metals in PM2.5 is 3-4 per 1g000g000 people at this location.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-617
Number of pages21
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2016

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tropical environment
health risk
particulate matter
risk assessment
monsoon
heavy metal
aerosol
trace element
coal
road
dust
matrix
ion
ion chromatography
metal
World Health Organization
sea salt
mineral
tropical region
biomass burning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

@article{5e13bd2b18f046bc99afde906df3a4c8,
title = "Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: Monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment",
abstract = "The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24gh basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48g{\%} of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24gh PM2.5 guideline but only 19g{\%} of the samples exceeded 24gh US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42g', NO3g', NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55g{\%} of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35g{\%}), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11g{\%}), sea salt (SS) (7g{\%}), and trace elements (TE) (2g{\%}). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31g{\%}) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20g{\%}), coal burning (19g{\%}), nitrate aerosol (17g{\%}), and mineral/road dust (13g{\%}). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass originating from the mineral/road dust source. The main carcinogenic heavy metal of concern to health at the current location was As; the other heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) did not pose a significant cancer risk in PM2.5 mass concentration. Overall, the associated lifetime cancer risk posed by the exposure of hazardous metals in PM2.5 is 3-4 per 1g000g000 people at this location.",
author = "Firoz Khan and Latif, {Mohd Talib} and Saw, {W. H.} and N. Amil and {Mohd Nadzir}, {Mohd Shahrul} and Mazrura Sahani and Tahir, {N. M.} and Chung, {J. X.}",
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T1 - Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment

T2 - Monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

AU - Khan, Firoz

AU - Latif, Mohd Talib

AU - Saw, W. H.

AU - Amil, N.

AU - Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul

AU - Sahani, Mazrura

AU - Tahir, N. M.

AU - Chung, J. X.

PY - 2016/1/19

Y1 - 2016/1/19

N2 - The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24gh basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48g% of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24gh PM2.5 guideline but only 19g% of the samples exceeded 24gh US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42g', NO3g', NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55g% of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35g%), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11g%), sea salt (SS) (7g%), and trace elements (TE) (2g%). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31g%) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20g%), coal burning (19g%), nitrate aerosol (17g%), and mineral/road dust (13g%). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass originating from the mineral/road dust source. The main carcinogenic heavy metal of concern to health at the current location was As; the other heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) did not pose a significant cancer risk in PM2.5 mass concentration. Overall, the associated lifetime cancer risk posed by the exposure of hazardous metals in PM2.5 is 3-4 per 1g000g000 people at this location.

AB - The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24gh basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48g% of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24gh PM2.5 guideline but only 19g% of the samples exceeded 24gh US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42g', NO3g', NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55g% of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35g%), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11g%), sea salt (SS) (7g%), and trace elements (TE) (2g%). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31g%) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20g%), coal burning (19g%), nitrate aerosol (17g%), and mineral/road dust (13g%). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass originating from the mineral/road dust source. The main carcinogenic heavy metal of concern to health at the current location was As; the other heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd) did not pose a significant cancer risk in PM2.5 mass concentration. Overall, the associated lifetime cancer risk posed by the exposure of hazardous metals in PM2.5 is 3-4 per 1g000g000 people at this location.

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