Faecal sterols as sewage markers in the Langat River, Malaysia: Integration of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches

Nur Hazirah Adnan, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Hafizan Juahir, Masni Mohd. Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Langat River in Malaysia has been experiencing anthropogenic input from urban, rural and industrial activities for many years. Sewage contamination, possibly originating from the greater than three million inhabitants of the Langat River Basin, were examined. Sediment samples from 22 stations (SL01-SL22) along the Langat River were collected, extracted and analysed by GC-MS. Six different sterols were identified and quantified. The highest sterol concentration was found at station SL02 (618.29 ng/g dry weight), which situated in the Balak River whereas the other sediment samples ranged between 11.60 and 446.52 ng/g dry weight. Sterol ratios were used to identify sources, occurrence and partitioning of faecal matter in sediments and majority of the ratios clearly demonstrated that sewage contamination was occurring at most stations in the Langat River. A multivariate statistical analysis was used in conjunction with a combination of biomarkers to better understand the data that clearly separated the compounds. Most sediments of the Langat River were found to contain low to mid-range sewage contamination with some containing 'significant' levels of contamination. This is the first report on sewage pollution in the Langat River based on a combination of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches that will establish a new standard for sewage detection using faecal sterols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1600-1608
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Volume24
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012

Fingerprint

sterol
Biomarkers
Sterols
Sewage
biomarker
sewage
Rivers
river
Sediments
Contamination
sediment
marker
statistical analysis
Catchments
partitioning
river basin
Statistical methods
Pollution
pollution
contamination

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Langat river
  • Principal component analysis
  • Sewage pollution
  • Sterols
  • Surface sediments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Faecal sterols as sewage markers in the Langat River, Malaysia : Integration of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches. / Adnan, Nur Hazirah; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Juahir, Hafizan; Mohd. Ali, Masni.

In: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), Vol. 24, No. 9, 09.2012, p. 1600-1608.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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