Fabrication of high efficiency sputtered CdS: O/CdTe thin film solar cells from window/absorber layer growth optimization in magnetron sputtering

M. A. Islam, K. S. Rahman, K. Sobayel, T. Enam, A. M. Ali, M. Zaman, Md. Akhtaruzzaman, Nowshad Amin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, CdTe (up to 2.0 µm thick) and oxygenated CdS (CdS:O, up to 100 nm thick) films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and optimum conditions of film growth were investigated for CdS:O/CdTe solar cells. Favourable TeO2 has been confirmed in XRD after the CdCl2 heat treatment of the CdTe films. Moreover, improved structural, optical and electrical properties are observed in the CdCl2 heat treated films. A detailed quantitative study has also been executed using XPS that finds sulfide, sulfate and an intermediate oxide as a function of oxygen content. In many cases, CdS contribution remains predominant, however, the CdSOx contribution increases with the increase of oxygen's partial pressure and decrease of growth rate. The complete solar cell device was fabricated of various CdTe thin films with different growth rates in sputtering. A highly resistive transparent (HRT) buffer layer ZnO:Sn was placed in between the FTO and CdS:O to avoid the forward leakage problem and screen printed C:Cu/Ag is used as the back contact for low cost fabrication. The J-V characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were measured for the solar cells under the illumination of AM 1.5G and the highest efficiency of 10.3% was achieved for the optimized CdTe growth rate of 5.4 Å/s, while CdS:O growth rate was 0.25 Å/s.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)384-393
Number of pages10
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume172
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Magnetron sputtering
Fabrication
Cadmium Chloride
Solar cells
Oxygen
Sulfides
Film growth
Buffer layers
Quantum efficiency
Thick films
Partial pressure
Oxides
Sulfates
Sputtering
Structural properties
Electric properties
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Optical properties
Lighting
Heat treatment

Keywords

  • CdS:O thin films
  • Conversion efficiency
  • PL
  • Thin film solar cell, CdTe, Sputtering
  • XPS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Fabrication of high efficiency sputtered CdS : O/CdTe thin film solar cells from window/absorber layer growth optimization in magnetron sputtering. / Islam, M. A.; Rahman, K. S.; Sobayel, K.; Enam, T.; Ali, A. M.; Zaman, M.; Akhtaruzzaman, Md.; Amin, Nowshad.

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 172, 01.12.2017, p. 384-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "In this study, CdTe (up to 2.0 µm thick) and oxygenated CdS (CdS:O, up to 100 nm thick) films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and optimum conditions of film growth were investigated for CdS:O/CdTe solar cells. Favourable TeO2 has been confirmed in XRD after the CdCl2 heat treatment of the CdTe films. Moreover, improved structural, optical and electrical properties are observed in the CdCl2 heat treated films. A detailed quantitative study has also been executed using XPS that finds sulfide, sulfate and an intermediate oxide as a function of oxygen content. In many cases, CdS contribution remains predominant, however, the CdSOx contribution increases with the increase of oxygen's partial pressure and decrease of growth rate. The complete solar cell device was fabricated of various CdTe thin films with different growth rates in sputtering. A highly resistive transparent (HRT) buffer layer ZnO:Sn was placed in between the FTO and CdS:O to avoid the forward leakage problem and screen printed C:Cu/Ag is used as the back contact for low cost fabrication. The J-V characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were measured for the solar cells under the illumination of AM 1.5G and the highest efficiency of 10.3{\%} was achieved for the optimized CdTe growth rate of 5.4 {\AA}/s, while CdS:O growth rate was 0.25 {\AA}/s.",
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AB - In this study, CdTe (up to 2.0 µm thick) and oxygenated CdS (CdS:O, up to 100 nm thick) films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and optimum conditions of film growth were investigated for CdS:O/CdTe solar cells. Favourable TeO2 has been confirmed in XRD after the CdCl2 heat treatment of the CdTe films. Moreover, improved structural, optical and electrical properties are observed in the CdCl2 heat treated films. A detailed quantitative study has also been executed using XPS that finds sulfide, sulfate and an intermediate oxide as a function of oxygen content. In many cases, CdS contribution remains predominant, however, the CdSOx contribution increases with the increase of oxygen's partial pressure and decrease of growth rate. The complete solar cell device was fabricated of various CdTe thin films with different growth rates in sputtering. A highly resistive transparent (HRT) buffer layer ZnO:Sn was placed in between the FTO and CdS:O to avoid the forward leakage problem and screen printed C:Cu/Ag is used as the back contact for low cost fabrication. The J-V characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) were measured for the solar cells under the illumination of AM 1.5G and the highest efficiency of 10.3% was achieved for the optimized CdTe growth rate of 5.4 Å/s, while CdS:O growth rate was 0.25 Å/s.

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