Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna

Huda Abdullah, Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal, Mohd Syafiq Zulfakar, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Badariah Bais, Sahbudin Saari, Sarada Idris

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4(x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.15 & 0.25) nanocrystals thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. The properties of Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and (UV-Vis). By indexing the XRD patterns, we identified three structural types which is ZnAl2O4, anatase and rutile. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size from 14.65 to 25.25 nm. The direct band gap was found to be around 3.35 to 3.84 eV. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size, surface roughness, and lattice parameters of the resultant films, evidently affecting their density and dielectric constant (εr). The thin films were characterized in the certain frequency to determine the εrusing LCR spectrometer. The εr and density value of the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4films increase linearly from 8.56 to 13.48 and 4.60 to 4.70 g/cm3with the increasing of x value, respectively. Based on the material analysis and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4material. The fabricated GPS antenna with the highest εr (13.48) material exhibits the smallest size of antenna which is 7.45 cm2. The performances and the operating frequencies were measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The result showed that all patch antennas operate at frequency of 1.570 GHz. The GPS patch antenna fabricated from Zn0.25Ti0.75Al2O4showed an excellent combination of return loss (-29.6 dB), smallest size (7.85 cm2), and wide bandwidth (195 MHz). All fabricated antennas are meets the requirements of GPS applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMaterials Science Forum
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Pages331-344
Number of pages14
Volume846
ISBN (Print)9783038357520
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Event28th Regional Conference on Solid State Science and Technology, RCSSST 2014 - Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia
Duration: 25 Nov 201427 Nov 2014

Publication series

NameMaterials Science Forum
Volume846
ISSN (Print)02555476

Other

Other28th Regional Conference on Solid State Science and Technology, RCSSST 2014
CountryMalaysia
CityCameron Highlands, Pahang
Period25/11/1427/11/14

Fingerprint

Sol-gel process
patch antennas
Global positioning system
antennas
Microstrip antennas
gels
Antennas
Fabrication
fabrication
Crystallite size
microwave antennas
Microwave antennas
X ray diffraction
Thin films
Electric network analyzers
thin films
anatase
rutile
Titanium dioxide
Nanocrystals

Keywords

  • Density
  • Dielectric constant
  • GPS antenna
  • ZnTiAlOnanocrystals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Abdullah, H., Wan Jalal, W. N., Zulfakar, M. S., Islam, M. T., Bais, B., Saari, S., & Idris, S. (2016). Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna. In Materials Science Forum (Vol. 846, pp. 331-344). (Materials Science Forum; Vol. 846). Trans Tech Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.846.331

Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna. / Abdullah, Huda; Wan Jalal, Wan Nasarudin; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Bais, Badariah; Saari, Sahbudin; Idris, Sarada.

Materials Science Forum. Vol. 846 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2016. p. 331-344 (Materials Science Forum; Vol. 846).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abdullah, H, Wan Jalal, WN, Zulfakar, MS, Islam, MT, Bais, B, Saari, S & Idris, S 2016, Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna. in Materials Science Forum. vol. 846, Materials Science Forum, vol. 846, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, pp. 331-344, 28th Regional Conference on Solid State Science and Technology, RCSSST 2014, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia, 25/11/14. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.846.331
Abdullah H, Wan Jalal WN, Zulfakar MS, Islam MT, Bais B, Saari S et al. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna. In Materials Science Forum. Vol. 846. Trans Tech Publications Ltd. 2016. p. 331-344. (Materials Science Forum). https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.846.331
Abdullah, Huda ; Wan Jalal, Wan Nasarudin ; Zulfakar, Mohd Syafiq ; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul ; Bais, Badariah ; Saari, Sahbudin ; Idris, Sarada. / Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-doped ZnAl2O4nanocrystals via sol-gel method for GPS antenna. Materials Science Forum. Vol. 846 Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2016. pp. 331-344 (Materials Science Forum).
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abstract = "The Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4(x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.15 & 0.25) nanocrystals thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. The properties of Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and (UV-Vis). By indexing the XRD patterns, we identified three structural types which is ZnAl2O4, anatase and rutile. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size from 14.65 to 25.25 nm. The direct band gap was found to be around 3.35 to 3.84 eV. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size, surface roughness, and lattice parameters of the resultant films, evidently affecting their density and dielectric constant (εr). The thin films were characterized in the certain frequency to determine the εrusing LCR spectrometer. The εr and density value of the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4films increase linearly from 8.56 to 13.48 and 4.60 to 4.70 g/cm3with the increasing of x value, respectively. Based on the material analysis and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4material. The fabricated GPS antenna with the highest εr (13.48) material exhibits the smallest size of antenna which is 7.45 cm2. The performances and the operating frequencies were measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The result showed that all patch antennas operate at frequency of 1.570 GHz. The GPS patch antenna fabricated from Zn0.25Ti0.75Al2O4showed an excellent combination of return loss (-29.6 dB), smallest size (7.85 cm2), and wide bandwidth (195 MHz). All fabricated antennas are meets the requirements of GPS applications.",
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AB - The Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4(x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.15 & 0.25) nanocrystals thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. The properties of Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and (UV-Vis). By indexing the XRD patterns, we identified three structural types which is ZnAl2O4, anatase and rutile. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size from 14.65 to 25.25 nm. The direct band gap was found to be around 3.35 to 3.84 eV. The addition of TiO2increased the crystallite size, surface roughness, and lattice parameters of the resultant films, evidently affecting their density and dielectric constant (εr). The thin films were characterized in the certain frequency to determine the εrusing LCR spectrometer. The εr and density value of the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4films increase linearly from 8.56 to 13.48 and 4.60 to 4.70 g/cm3with the increasing of x value, respectively. Based on the material analysis and microwave antenna theory, GPS patch antennas were fabricated using the Zn(1-x)TixAl2O4material. The fabricated GPS antenna with the highest εr (13.48) material exhibits the smallest size of antenna which is 7.45 cm2. The performances and the operating frequencies were measured using a PNA series network analyzer. The result showed that all patch antennas operate at frequency of 1.570 GHz. The GPS patch antenna fabricated from Zn0.25Ti0.75Al2O4showed an excellent combination of return loss (-29.6 dB), smallest size (7.85 cm2), and wide bandwidth (195 MHz). All fabricated antennas are meets the requirements of GPS applications.

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KW - ZnTiAlOnanocrystals

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