Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell

Suhaila Sepeai, S. L. Cheow, M. Y. Sulaiman, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Saleem H. Zaidi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Crystalline silicon, in its single crystalline or multi-crystalline (mc) format, dominates the photovoltaic (PV) industry. However, PV energy generation cost is still higher than energy-conversion costs of carbon-based fossil fuels. Since the price of silicon wafer accounts for almost 50 % of the energy conversion cost, historically cost reduction through reducing Si wafer thickness has been successful approach. This approach is now reaching its limits due to yield reduction of thinner wafers, thermal expansion mismatch between Al and thin Si wafer, and reduced optical absorption. In recent years, bifacial solar cells have attracted attention due to their several attractive features including: (a) applicability to thinner wafers, (b) superior high temperature performance, (c) elimination of wafer warpage, (d) lower metal usage, (e) symmetric structure irrespective of n or p wafer, (f) enhanced power generation, and (g) simple processing. A bifacial solar cell structure consists of bulk (p or n-type semiconductor), emitter, back surface field (BSF), anti reflective coatings (ARC) and identical metal grids on both sides. In this study, a new combination method of emitter and BSF layer for npp+ bifacial structure has been investigated. The npp+ structure has been chosen due to its inherent simplicity and process similarity to industrial monofacial solar cell manufacturing. The new process relies on POCl3 diffusion for emitter formation on the front side; and screen printed Aluminum (Al) for BSF on the rear surface. A screen-printed process is used to apply Al to the wafer followed by high temperature firing process to form Al back surface field and contact. In this case, excess Al is removed from the rear using wet-chemical etching resulting in an Al-doped p+ surface. LIV, surface photovoltage, and EDAX techniques were employed to characterized solar cell performance; PC1D simulations were applied to determine front and rear surface efficiencies. Poor rear surface performance of such bifacial solar cells has been attributed to inadequate passivation, higher reflection, and ineffective back surface field.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Pages2664-2668
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9781479932993
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2013 - Tampa, FL
Duration: 16 Jun 201321 Jun 2013

Other

Other39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2013
CityTampa, FL
Period16/6/1321/6/13

Fingerprint

Solar cells
Aluminum
Fabrication
Crystalline materials
Energy conversion
Reflective coatings
Costs
Wet etching
Cost reduction
Metals
Silicon wafers
Fossil fuels
Passivation
Light absorption
Power generation
Thermal expansion
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Semiconductor materials
Silicon
Temperature

Keywords

  • Al-BSF
  • Bifacial solar cell
  • Silicon solar cell
  • Surface photovoltage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Sepeai, S., Cheow, S. L., Sulaiman, M. Y., Sopian, K., & Zaidi, S. H. (2013). Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell. In Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (pp. 2664-2668). [6745021] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745021

Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell. / Sepeai, Suhaila; Cheow, S. L.; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2013. p. 2664-2668 6745021.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Sepeai, S, Cheow, SL, Sulaiman, MY, Sopian, K & Zaidi, SH 2013, Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell. in Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference., 6745021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 2664-2668, 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2013, Tampa, FL, 16/6/13. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745021
Sepeai S, Cheow SL, Sulaiman MY, Sopian K, Zaidi SH. Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell. In Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2013. p. 2664-2668. 6745021 https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745021
Sepeai, Suhaila ; Cheow, S. L. ; Sulaiman, M. Y. ; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman ; Zaidi, Saleem H. / Fabrication and characterization of Al-BSF bifacial solar cell. Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2013. pp. 2664-2668
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AB - Crystalline silicon, in its single crystalline or multi-crystalline (mc) format, dominates the photovoltaic (PV) industry. However, PV energy generation cost is still higher than energy-conversion costs of carbon-based fossil fuels. Since the price of silicon wafer accounts for almost 50 % of the energy conversion cost, historically cost reduction through reducing Si wafer thickness has been successful approach. This approach is now reaching its limits due to yield reduction of thinner wafers, thermal expansion mismatch between Al and thin Si wafer, and reduced optical absorption. In recent years, bifacial solar cells have attracted attention due to their several attractive features including: (a) applicability to thinner wafers, (b) superior high temperature performance, (c) elimination of wafer warpage, (d) lower metal usage, (e) symmetric structure irrespective of n or p wafer, (f) enhanced power generation, and (g) simple processing. A bifacial solar cell structure consists of bulk (p or n-type semiconductor), emitter, back surface field (BSF), anti reflective coatings (ARC) and identical metal grids on both sides. In this study, a new combination method of emitter and BSF layer for npp+ bifacial structure has been investigated. The npp+ structure has been chosen due to its inherent simplicity and process similarity to industrial monofacial solar cell manufacturing. The new process relies on POCl3 diffusion for emitter formation on the front side; and screen printed Aluminum (Al) for BSF on the rear surface. A screen-printed process is used to apply Al to the wafer followed by high temperature firing process to form Al back surface field and contact. In this case, excess Al is removed from the rear using wet-chemical etching resulting in an Al-doped p+ surface. LIV, surface photovoltage, and EDAX techniques were employed to characterized solar cell performance; PC1D simulations were applied to determine front and rear surface efficiencies. Poor rear surface performance of such bifacial solar cells has been attributed to inadequate passivation, higher reflection, and ineffective back surface field.

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