Expression of TGF-β1 in the blood during fracture repair in an estrogen-deficient rat model

Mohamed Abdalla Estai, Farihah Suhaimi, Srijit Das, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Zahiah Mohamed, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF- β) has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF- β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i) a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii) an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii) an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day) group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001). After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001). The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF- β1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2113-2119
Number of pages7
JournalClinics
Volume66
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Transforming Growth Factors
Estrogens
Fracture Healing
Conjugated (USP) Estrogens
Control Groups
Femur
Bone Wires
Ovariectomy
Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts
Osteoporosis
Sprague Dawley Rats
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Estrogen
  • Fracture
  • Osteoporosis
  • Ovariectomy
  • Repair
  • TGF-β1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Expression of TGF-β1 in the blood during fracture repair in an estrogen-deficient rat model. / Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Suhaimi, Farihah; Das, Srijit; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamed, Zahiah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana.

In: Clinics, Vol. 66, No. 12, 2011, p. 2113-2119.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Estai, Mohamed Abdalla ; Suhaimi, Farihah ; Das, Srijit ; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun ; Mohamed, Zahiah ; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana. / Expression of TGF-β1 in the blood during fracture repair in an estrogen-deficient rat model. In: Clinics. 2011 ; Vol. 66, No. 12. pp. 2113-2119.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF- β) has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF- β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i) a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii) an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii) an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day) group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001). After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001). The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF- β1.",
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AU - Estai, Mohamed Abdalla

AU - Suhaimi, Farihah

AU - Das, Srijit

AU - Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

AU - Mohamed, Zahiah

AU - Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

PY - 2011

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF- β) has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF- β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i) a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii) an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii) an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day) group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001). After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001). The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF- β1.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF- β) has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF- β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i) a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii) an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii) an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day) group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001). After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF- β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001). The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF- β1.

KW - Biomechanics

KW - Estrogen

KW - Fracture

KW - Osteoporosis

KW - Ovariectomy

KW - Repair

KW - TGF-β1

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