Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy

Kasturi Muthoosamy, Renu Geetha Bai, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Surya Mudavasseril Sudheer, Hong Ngee Lim, Hwei San Loh, Nay Ming Huang, Chin Hua Chia, Sivakumar Manickam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. Methods: The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods. Results: More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO’s electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5). Conclusion: Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1505-1519
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2015

Fingerprint

Graphite
Nanosheets
Agaricales
Oxides
Graphene
Polysaccharides
Reishi
Electric Conductivity
Water
Reducing Agents
Reducing agents
Biocompatibility
Surface-Active Agents
Brain Neoplasms
Conversion efficiency
Byproducts
Brain
Colon
Surface active agents
Cells

Keywords

  • Extraction
  • Ganoderma
  • RGO
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

Muthoosamy, K., Geetha Bai, R., Abubakar, I. B., Sudheer, S. M., Lim, H. N., Loh, H. S., ... Manickam, S. (2015). Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 1505-1519. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S75213

Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy. / Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Geetha Bai, Renu; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril; Lim, Hong Ngee; Loh, Hwei San; Huang, Nay Ming; Chia, Chin Hua; Manickam, Sivakumar.

In: International Journal of Nanomedicine, Vol. 10, 20.02.2015, p. 1505-1519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Muthoosamy, Kasturi ; Geetha Bai, Renu ; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida ; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril ; Lim, Hong Ngee ; Loh, Hwei San ; Huang, Nay Ming ; Chia, Chin Hua ; Manickam, Sivakumar. / Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy. In: International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2015 ; Vol. 10. pp. 1505-1519.
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