Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia

Sami M. Magam, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Normala Halimoon, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Narayanan Kannan, Najat Masood, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Sadeq Alkhadher, Mehrzad Keshavarzifard, Vahab Vaezzadeh, Muhamad S A Sani, Mohd Talib Latif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This is the first extensive report on linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as sewage molecular markers in surface sediments collected from the Perlis, Kedah, Merbok, Prai, and Perak Rivers and Estuaries in the west of Peninsular Malaysia. Sediment samples were extracted, fractionated, and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total LABs ranged from 68 to 154 (Perlis River), 103 to 314 (Kedah River), 242 to 1062 (Merbok River), 1985 to 2910 (Prai River), and 217 to 329 ng g−1 (Perak River) dry weight (dw). The highest levels of LABs were found at PI3 (Prai Estuary) due to the rapid industrialization and population growth in this region, while the lowest concentrations of LABs were found at PS1 (upstream of Perlis River). The LABs ratio of internal to external isomers (I/E) in this study ranged from 0.56 at KH1 (upstream of Kedah River) to 1.35 at MK3 (Merbok Estuary) indicating that the rivers receive raw sewage and primary treatment effluents in the study area. In general, the results of this paper highlighted the necessity of continuation of water treatment system improvement in Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 18 Nov 2015

Fingerprint

Estuaries
Malaysia
Sewage
Rivers
sewage
estuary
river
Sediments
marker
evaluation
distribution
Effluent treatment
Water Purification
Population Growth
Water treatment
sewage treatment
industrialization
Isomers
Gas chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • I/E ratio
  • Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs)
  • Malaysia
  • Merbok River
  • Perlis River
  • Prai River

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution

Cite this

Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia. / Magam, Sami M.; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kannan, Narayanan; Masood, Najat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Alkhadher, Sadeq; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Sani, Muhamad S A; Latif, Mohd Talib.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18.11.2015, p. 1-12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Magam, SM, Zakaria, MP, Halimoon, N, Aris, AZ, Kannan, N, Masood, N, Mustafa, S, Alkhadher, S, Keshavarzifard, M, Vaezzadeh, V, Sani, MSA & Latif, MT 2015, 'Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5804-9
Magam, Sami M. ; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi ; Halimoon, Normala ; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin ; Kannan, Narayanan ; Masood, Najat ; Mustafa, Shuhaimi ; Alkhadher, Sadeq ; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad ; Vaezzadeh, Vahab ; Sani, Muhamad S A ; Latif, Mohd Talib. / Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015 ; pp. 1-12.
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