Eurycoma longifolia as a potential alternative to testosterone for the treatment of osteoporosis

Exploring time-mannered proliferative, differentiative and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts

Hnin Ei Thu, Isa Naina Mohamed, Zahid Hussain, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well-studied traditionally as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the management of male osteoporosis. It has also been well-recognised to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats. Aim of the study To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone. Materials and methods Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25 µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL. Conclusion Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-158
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume195
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Eurycoma
Osteoblasts
Osteoporosis
Testosterone
Staining and Labeling
Alkaline Phosphatase
Cell Proliferation
Electrons
Gentian Violet
Phase-Contrast Microscopy
Physiologic Calcification
Minerals
Cultured Cells

Keywords

  • Cell proliferation
  • Eurycoma longifolia
  • Male osteoporosis
  • Morphogenic characteristics
  • Osteogenic differentiation
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

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title = "Eurycoma longifolia as a potential alternative to testosterone for the treatment of osteoporosis: Exploring time-mannered proliferative, differentiative and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts",
abstract = "Ethnopharmacological relevance Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well-studied traditionally as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the management of male osteoporosis. It has also been well-recognised to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats. Aim of the study To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone. Materials and methods Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25 µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL. Conclusion Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.",
keywords = "Cell proliferation, Eurycoma longifolia, Male osteoporosis, Morphogenic characteristics, Osteogenic differentiation, Testosterone",
author = "Thu, {Hnin Ei} and Mohamed, {Isa Naina} and Zahid Hussain and Shuid, {Ahmad Nazrun}",
year = "2017",
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T1 - Eurycoma longifolia as a potential alternative to testosterone for the treatment of osteoporosis

T2 - Exploring time-mannered proliferative, differentiative and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts

AU - Thu, Hnin Ei

AU - Mohamed, Isa Naina

AU - Hussain, Zahid

AU - Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

PY - 2017/1/4

Y1 - 2017/1/4

N2 - Ethnopharmacological relevance Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well-studied traditionally as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the management of male osteoporosis. It has also been well-recognised to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats. Aim of the study To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone. Materials and methods Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25 µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL. Conclusion Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.

AB - Ethnopharmacological relevance Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well-studied traditionally as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the management of male osteoporosis. It has also been well-recognised to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats. Aim of the study To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone. Materials and methods Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25 µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25 µg/mL concentration of EL. Conclusion Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.

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