Eurycoma longifolia, a promising suppressor of RANKL-induced differentiation and activation of osteoclasts

An in vitro mechanistic evaluation

Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Numerous in vivo studies have explored the effects of E. longifolia on osteoporosis; however, the in vitro cellular mechanism was not discovered yet. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 cells as an in vitro osteoclastic model. Materials and methods: Having assessed cytotoxicity, the cell viability, cell proliferation rate and osteoclastic differentiation capacity of E. longifolia was investigated by evaluating the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the time-mannered expression of osteoclast-related protein biomarkers such as matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K, TRAP, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), superoxide (free radicals) generation and superoxide dismutase activity were also measured to comprehend the mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Results: E. longifolia did not show significant effects on cytotoxicity and cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells; however, a significant inhibition of cells differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts was observed. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of RANKL-induced TRAP activity and expression of MMP-9, cathepsin-K, TRAP, NFATc1 and generation of superoxide and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity was observed in E. longifolia treated cell cultures. Conclusion: We anticipated that E. longifolia that enhances bone regeneration on the one hand and suppresses osteoclast's maturation on the other hand may have great therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone-erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and metastasis associated with bone loss.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2018

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Eurycoma
Osteoclasts
Osteogenesis
Cathepsin K
Osteoporosis
NFATC Transcription Factors
Metalloproteases
Superoxides
Superoxide Dismutase
Cell Proliferation
Bone Regeneration
Bone Diseases
Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
In Vitro Techniques
Androgens
Free Radicals
Cell Differentiation
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cell Survival
Down-Regulation

Keywords

  • Bone resorption
  • Eurycoma longifolia
  • Molecular mechanism
  • Osteoclastogenesis
  • Osteoclasts
  • Osteoporosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

@article{42a69ccb80414a04bdd7b6526782273a,
title = "Eurycoma longifolia, a promising suppressor of RANKL-induced differentiation and activation of osteoclasts: An in vitro mechanistic evaluation",
abstract = "Background: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Numerous in vivo studies have explored the effects of E. longifolia on osteoporosis; however, the in vitro cellular mechanism was not discovered yet. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 cells as an in vitro osteoclastic model. Materials and methods: Having assessed cytotoxicity, the cell viability, cell proliferation rate and osteoclastic differentiation capacity of E. longifolia was investigated by evaluating the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the time-mannered expression of osteoclast-related protein biomarkers such as matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K, TRAP, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), superoxide (free radicals) generation and superoxide dismutase activity were also measured to comprehend the mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Results: E. longifolia did not show significant effects on cytotoxicity and cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells; however, a significant inhibition of cells differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts was observed. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of RANKL-induced TRAP activity and expression of MMP-9, cathepsin-K, TRAP, NFATc1 and generation of superoxide and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity was observed in E. longifolia treated cell cultures. Conclusion: We anticipated that E. longifolia that enhances bone regeneration on the one hand and suppresses osteoclast's maturation on the other hand may have great therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone-erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and metastasis associated with bone loss.",
keywords = "Bone resorption, Eurycoma longifolia, Molecular mechanism, Osteoclastogenesis, Osteoclasts, Osteoporosis",
author = "Thu, {Hnin Ei} and Zahid Hussain and {Naina Mohamed}, Isa and Shuid, {Ahmad Nazrun}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jaim.2017.07.014",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine",
issn = "0975-9476",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Eurycoma longifolia, a promising suppressor of RANKL-induced differentiation and activation of osteoclasts

T2 - An in vitro mechanistic evaluation

AU - Thu, Hnin Ei

AU - Hussain, Zahid

AU - Naina Mohamed, Isa

AU - Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Background: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Numerous in vivo studies have explored the effects of E. longifolia on osteoporosis; however, the in vitro cellular mechanism was not discovered yet. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 cells as an in vitro osteoclastic model. Materials and methods: Having assessed cytotoxicity, the cell viability, cell proliferation rate and osteoclastic differentiation capacity of E. longifolia was investigated by evaluating the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the time-mannered expression of osteoclast-related protein biomarkers such as matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K, TRAP, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), superoxide (free radicals) generation and superoxide dismutase activity were also measured to comprehend the mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Results: E. longifolia did not show significant effects on cytotoxicity and cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells; however, a significant inhibition of cells differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts was observed. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of RANKL-induced TRAP activity and expression of MMP-9, cathepsin-K, TRAP, NFATc1 and generation of superoxide and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity was observed in E. longifolia treated cell cultures. Conclusion: We anticipated that E. longifolia that enhances bone regeneration on the one hand and suppresses osteoclast's maturation on the other hand may have great therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone-erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and metastasis associated with bone loss.

AB - Background: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Numerous in vivo studies have explored the effects of E. longifolia on osteoporosis; however, the in vitro cellular mechanism was not discovered yet. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 cells as an in vitro osteoclastic model. Materials and methods: Having assessed cytotoxicity, the cell viability, cell proliferation rate and osteoclastic differentiation capacity of E. longifolia was investigated by evaluating the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. Taken together, the time-mannered expression of osteoclast-related protein biomarkers such as matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K, TRAP, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), superoxide (free radicals) generation and superoxide dismutase activity were also measured to comprehend the mechanism of osteoclastogenesis. Results: E. longifolia did not show significant effects on cytotoxicity and cell proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells; however, a significant inhibition of cells differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts was observed. Moreover, a significant down-regulation of RANKL-induced TRAP activity and expression of MMP-9, cathepsin-K, TRAP, NFATc1 and generation of superoxide and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity was observed in E. longifolia treated cell cultures. Conclusion: We anticipated that E. longifolia that enhances bone regeneration on the one hand and suppresses osteoclast's maturation on the other hand may have great therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone-erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and metastasis associated with bone loss.

KW - Bone resorption

KW - Eurycoma longifolia

KW - Molecular mechanism

KW - Osteoclastogenesis

KW - Osteoclasts

KW - Osteoporosis

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