Ethnicity is an independent determinant of age-specific PSA level: Findings from a multiethnic Asian setting

Jasmine Lim, Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy, Selvalingam Sothilingam, Rohan Malek, Murali Sundram, Badrul Hisham Bahadzor, Teng Aik Ong, Keng Lim Ng, Sivaprakasam Sivalingam, Azad Hassan Abdul Razack

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objectives: To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (≤4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere104917
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume9
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2014

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    nationalities and ethnic groups
    Surgery
    Prostate
    Oxidoreductases
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    prostatic neoplasms
    Age Groups
    Urologic Neoplasms
    Weights and Measures
    cultural heritage
    Digital Rectal Examination
    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
    urinary tract
    Serum
    cross-sectional studies
    signs and symptoms (animals and humans)
    surgery
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Population
    Therapeutics

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
    • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
    • Medicine(all)

    Cite this

    Lim, J., Bhoo-Pathy, N., Sothilingam, S., Malek, R., Sundram, M., Bahadzor, B. H., ... Razack, A. H. A. (2014). Ethnicity is an independent determinant of age-specific PSA level: Findings from a multiethnic Asian setting. PLoS One, 9(8), [e104917]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104917

    Ethnicity is an independent determinant of age-specific PSA level : Findings from a multiethnic Asian setting. / Lim, Jasmine; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Sothilingam, Selvalingam; Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Bahadzor, Badrul Hisham; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul.

    In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 8, e104917, 11.08.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Lim, J, Bhoo-Pathy, N, Sothilingam, S, Malek, R, Sundram, M, Bahadzor, BH, Ong, TA, Ng, KL, Sivalingam, S & Razack, AHA 2014, 'Ethnicity is an independent determinant of age-specific PSA level: Findings from a multiethnic Asian setting', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 8, e104917. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104917
    Lim, Jasmine ; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala ; Sothilingam, Selvalingam ; Malek, Rohan ; Sundram, Murali ; Bahadzor, Badrul Hisham ; Ong, Teng Aik ; Ng, Keng Lim ; Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam ; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul. / Ethnicity is an independent determinant of age-specific PSA level : Findings from a multiethnic Asian setting. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 8.
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    abstract = "Objectives: To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: There were 38 men (3.6{\%}) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4{\%}) with a healthy PSA (≤4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population.",
    author = "Jasmine Lim and Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy and Selvalingam Sothilingam and Rohan Malek and Murali Sundram and Bahadzor, {Badrul Hisham} and Ong, {Teng Aik} and Ng, {Keng Lim} and Sivaprakasam Sivalingam and Razack, {Azad Hassan Abdul}",
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    AU - Sothilingam, Selvalingam

    AU - Malek, Rohan

    AU - Sundram, Murali

    AU - Bahadzor, Badrul Hisham

    AU - Ong, Teng Aik

    AU - Ng, Keng Lim

    AU - Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam

    AU - Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

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    N2 - Objectives: To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (≤4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population.

    AB - Objectives: To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results: There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (≤4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population.

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