Estimation of specific absorption rate and temperature increases in the human head due to portable telephones

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Abstract

The bioheat equation is solved for an anatomically based model of the human head with a resolution of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm to study the thermal implications of exposure to electromagnetic (EM) fields typical of cellular telephones at 900 MHz. Attention has first been posed on a particular phone model, and a comparison between the absorbed power distribution and steady-state temperature increases has been carried out. The antenna output power was set to be consistent with the portable telephones of 600 mW, maximum SAR values, averaged over 1 gm, from 2.1 to 3.6 W/kg depending on the considered phone. The maximum temperature increases are obtained in the ear and vary from 0.22°C to 0.39°C, while the maximum temperature increases in the brain lie from 0.07°C to 0.17°C. These steady-state temperature increases are obtained after about 48 min of exposure, with a time constant of approximately 6 min. Application of the ANSI/IEEE safety guidelines restricting the 1 gm averaged spatial peak SAR to 1.6 W/kg results in the maximum temperature rise in the brain from 0.07°C to 0.15°C at 900 MHz. Finally, considerations about the exposure limits in the considered studied frequency are made.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1209-1215
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Research and Essays
Volume6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Fingerprint

Telephone sets
telephones
Telephone
Head
Temperature
temperature
brain
Brain
Cellular telephones
Cell Phones
Electromagnetic Fields
ear
antennae
Electromagnetic fields
time constant
Ear
ears
safety
electromagnetic fields
antennas

Keywords

  • Electromagnetic heating
  • Electromagnetic wave polarization
  • Finite-difference time-domain method
  • Mobile phone
  • Specific absorption rate
  • Temperature increase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

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title = "Estimation of specific absorption rate and temperature increases in the human head due to portable telephones",
abstract = "The bioheat equation is solved for an anatomically based model of the human head with a resolution of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm to study the thermal implications of exposure to electromagnetic (EM) fields typical of cellular telephones at 900 MHz. Attention has first been posed on a particular phone model, and a comparison between the absorbed power distribution and steady-state temperature increases has been carried out. The antenna output power was set to be consistent with the portable telephones of 600 mW, maximum SAR values, averaged over 1 gm, from 2.1 to 3.6 W/kg depending on the considered phone. The maximum temperature increases are obtained in the ear and vary from 0.22°C to 0.39°C, while the maximum temperature increases in the brain lie from 0.07°C to 0.17°C. These steady-state temperature increases are obtained after about 48 min of exposure, with a time constant of approximately 6 min. Application of the ANSI/IEEE safety guidelines restricting the 1 gm averaged spatial peak SAR to 1.6 W/kg results in the maximum temperature rise in the brain from 0.07°C to 0.15°C at 900 MHz. Finally, considerations about the exposure limits in the considered studied frequency are made.",
keywords = "Electromagnetic heating, Electromagnetic wave polarization, Finite-difference time-domain method, Mobile phone, Specific absorption rate, Temperature increase",
author = "Faruque, {Mohammad Rashed Iqbal} and Norbahiah Misran and Rosdiadee Nordin and Islam, {Mohammad Tariqul} and Baharudin Yatim",
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AU - Yatim, Baharudin

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