Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system

Asmida Ismail, Sarah Diyana Marzuki, Nordiana Bakti Mohd Yusof, Faeiza Buyong, Mohd. Nizam Mohd. Said, Harinder Rai Sigh, Amyrul Rafiq Zulkifli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has caused significant environmental changes, particularly to the lower plants such as terrestrial algae and lichens that alter species composition, and therefore can contribute to changes in community landscape. A study to understand how increased CO2 in the atmosphere will affect algal density with minimal adjustment on its natural ecosystem, and the suitability of the algae to be considered as a biomarker, has been conducted. The current work was conducted in the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system located in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia. CO2 was injected through special valves located along the ring surrounding specimen trees where 10 × 10 cm quadrats were placed. A total of 16 quadrats were randomly placed on the bark of 16 trees located inside the FACE system. This system will allow data collection on the effect of increased CO2 without interfering or changing other parameters of the surrounding environment such as the wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and temperature. The initial density Trebouxia sp. was pre-determined on 1 March 2015, and the final density was taken slightly over a year later, on 15 March 2016. The exposure period of 380 days shed some light in understanding the effect of CO2 on these non-complex, short life cycle lower plants. The results from this research work showed that the density of algae is significantly higher after 380 days exposure to the CO2-enriched environment, at 408.5 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, compared to the control site at 176.5 ± 6.9 × 104 cells/cm2 (independent t-test, p < 0.001). The distance between the trees and the injector valves is negatively correlated. Quadrats located in the center of the circular ring recorded lower algal density compared to the ones closer to the CO2 injector. Quadrat 16, which was nearing the end of the CO2 valve injector, showed an exceptionally high algal density—2-fold higher than the average density at 796 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2. In contrast, Quadrat 9, which was located in the center of the ring (lower CO2 concentration), recorded only 277 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, which further supports the previous claim. Based on the data obtained, this study provides useful data in understanding the positive effect of CO2 on algal density, in a natural environment, and suggests the use of epiphytic terrestrial algae as a biomarker.

Original languageEnglish
Article number19
JournalBiology
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

algae
free air carbon dioxide enrichment
Trebouxia
Biomarkers
Algae
Carbon Dioxide
biomarkers
carbon dioxide
Air
Malaysia
Atmosphere
injectors
Plant Bark
Lichens
Humidity
Life Cycle Stages
Ecosystems
Ecosystem
Life cycle
Atmospheric humidity

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Algae
  • Bio-indicator
  • Carbon dioxide
  • FACE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system. / Ismail, Asmida; Marzuki, Sarah Diyana; Yusof, Nordiana Bakti Mohd; Buyong, Faeiza; Mohd. Said, Mohd. Nizam; Sigh, Harinder Rai; Zulkifli, Amyrul Rafiq.

In: Biology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 19, 01.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ismail, Asmida ; Marzuki, Sarah Diyana ; Yusof, Nordiana Bakti Mohd ; Buyong, Faeiza ; Mohd. Said, Mohd. Nizam ; Sigh, Harinder Rai ; Zulkifli, Amyrul Rafiq. / Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system. In: Biology. 2017 ; Vol. 6, No. 1.
@article{7c595c3f4f7b410fa43ff81d3785394b,
title = "Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system",
abstract = "The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has caused significant environmental changes, particularly to the lower plants such as terrestrial algae and lichens that alter species composition, and therefore can contribute to changes in community landscape. A study to understand how increased CO2 in the atmosphere will affect algal density with minimal adjustment on its natural ecosystem, and the suitability of the algae to be considered as a biomarker, has been conducted. The current work was conducted in the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system located in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia. CO2 was injected through special valves located along the ring surrounding specimen trees where 10 × 10 cm quadrats were placed. A total of 16 quadrats were randomly placed on the bark of 16 trees located inside the FACE system. This system will allow data collection on the effect of increased CO2 without interfering or changing other parameters of the surrounding environment such as the wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and temperature. The initial density Trebouxia sp. was pre-determined on 1 March 2015, and the final density was taken slightly over a year later, on 15 March 2016. The exposure period of 380 days shed some light in understanding the effect of CO2 on these non-complex, short life cycle lower plants. The results from this research work showed that the density of algae is significantly higher after 380 days exposure to the CO2-enriched environment, at 408.5 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, compared to the control site at 176.5 ± 6.9 × 104 cells/cm2 (independent t-test, p < 0.001). The distance between the trees and the injector valves is negatively correlated. Quadrats located in the center of the circular ring recorded lower algal density compared to the ones closer to the CO2 injector. Quadrat 16, which was nearing the end of the CO2 valve injector, showed an exceptionally high algal density—2-fold higher than the average density at 796 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2. In contrast, Quadrat 9, which was located in the center of the ring (lower CO2 concentration), recorded only 277 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, which further supports the previous claim. Based on the data obtained, this study provides useful data in understanding the positive effect of CO2 on algal density, in a natural environment, and suggests the use of epiphytic terrestrial algae as a biomarker.",
keywords = "Air pollution, Algae, Bio-indicator, Carbon dioxide, FACE",
author = "Asmida Ismail and Marzuki, {Sarah Diyana} and Yusof, {Nordiana Bakti Mohd} and Faeiza Buyong and {Mohd. Said}, {Mohd. Nizam} and Sigh, {Harinder Rai} and Zulkifli, {Amyrul Rafiq}",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/biology6010019",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Biology",
issn = "2079-7737",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epiphytic terrestrial algae (Trebouxia sp.) as a biomarker using the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system

AU - Ismail, Asmida

AU - Marzuki, Sarah Diyana

AU - Yusof, Nordiana Bakti Mohd

AU - Buyong, Faeiza

AU - Mohd. Said, Mohd. Nizam

AU - Sigh, Harinder Rai

AU - Zulkifli, Amyrul Rafiq

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has caused significant environmental changes, particularly to the lower plants such as terrestrial algae and lichens that alter species composition, and therefore can contribute to changes in community landscape. A study to understand how increased CO2 in the atmosphere will affect algal density with minimal adjustment on its natural ecosystem, and the suitability of the algae to be considered as a biomarker, has been conducted. The current work was conducted in the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system located in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia. CO2 was injected through special valves located along the ring surrounding specimen trees where 10 × 10 cm quadrats were placed. A total of 16 quadrats were randomly placed on the bark of 16 trees located inside the FACE system. This system will allow data collection on the effect of increased CO2 without interfering or changing other parameters of the surrounding environment such as the wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and temperature. The initial density Trebouxia sp. was pre-determined on 1 March 2015, and the final density was taken slightly over a year later, on 15 March 2016. The exposure period of 380 days shed some light in understanding the effect of CO2 on these non-complex, short life cycle lower plants. The results from this research work showed that the density of algae is significantly higher after 380 days exposure to the CO2-enriched environment, at 408.5 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, compared to the control site at 176.5 ± 6.9 × 104 cells/cm2 (independent t-test, p < 0.001). The distance between the trees and the injector valves is negatively correlated. Quadrats located in the center of the circular ring recorded lower algal density compared to the ones closer to the CO2 injector. Quadrat 16, which was nearing the end of the CO2 valve injector, showed an exceptionally high algal density—2-fold higher than the average density at 796 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2. In contrast, Quadrat 9, which was located in the center of the ring (lower CO2 concentration), recorded only 277 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, which further supports the previous claim. Based on the data obtained, this study provides useful data in understanding the positive effect of CO2 on algal density, in a natural environment, and suggests the use of epiphytic terrestrial algae as a biomarker.

AB - The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has caused significant environmental changes, particularly to the lower plants such as terrestrial algae and lichens that alter species composition, and therefore can contribute to changes in community landscape. A study to understand how increased CO2 in the atmosphere will affect algal density with minimal adjustment on its natural ecosystem, and the suitability of the algae to be considered as a biomarker, has been conducted. The current work was conducted in the Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) system located in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia. CO2 was injected through special valves located along the ring surrounding specimen trees where 10 × 10 cm quadrats were placed. A total of 16 quadrats were randomly placed on the bark of 16 trees located inside the FACE system. This system will allow data collection on the effect of increased CO2 without interfering or changing other parameters of the surrounding environment such as the wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and temperature. The initial density Trebouxia sp. was pre-determined on 1 March 2015, and the final density was taken slightly over a year later, on 15 March 2016. The exposure period of 380 days shed some light in understanding the effect of CO2 on these non-complex, short life cycle lower plants. The results from this research work showed that the density of algae is significantly higher after 380 days exposure to the CO2-enriched environment, at 408.5 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, compared to the control site at 176.5 ± 6.9 × 104 cells/cm2 (independent t-test, p < 0.001). The distance between the trees and the injector valves is negatively correlated. Quadrats located in the center of the circular ring recorded lower algal density compared to the ones closer to the CO2 injector. Quadrat 16, which was nearing the end of the CO2 valve injector, showed an exceptionally high algal density—2-fold higher than the average density at 796 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2. In contrast, Quadrat 9, which was located in the center of the ring (lower CO2 concentration), recorded only 277 ± 38.5 × 104 cells/cm2, which further supports the previous claim. Based on the data obtained, this study provides useful data in understanding the positive effect of CO2 on algal density, in a natural environment, and suggests the use of epiphytic terrestrial algae as a biomarker.

KW - Air pollution

KW - Algae

KW - Bio-indicator

KW - Carbon dioxide

KW - FACE

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85015279261&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85015279261&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/biology6010019

DO - 10.3390/biology6010019

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - Biology

JF - Biology

SN - 2079-7737

IS - 1

M1 - 19

ER -